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Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 186; doi:10.3390/nu9030186

Poor Vitamin C Status Late in Pregnancy Is Associated with Increased Risk of Complications in Type 1 Diabetic Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

1
Medical Department, Aarhus University Hospital, Nørrebrogade 44, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
2
Gynecology & Obstetrics Department, Herning Hospital, Gl. Landevej 61, 7400 Herning, Denmark
3
Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Ridebanevej 9, Frederiksberg C, 1870 Copenhagen, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 January 2017 / Revised: 15 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin C in Health and Disease)
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Abstract

Vitamin C (vitC) is essential for normal pregnancy and fetal development and poor vitC status has been related to complications of pregnancy. We have previously shown lower vitC status in diabetic women throughout pregnancy compared to that of non-diabetic controls. Here, we evaluate the relationship between vitC status late in diabetic pregnancy in relation to fetal outcome, complications of pregnancy, diabetic characteristics, and glycemic control based on data of 47 women from the same cohort. We found a significant relationship between the maternal vitC level > or ≤ the 50% percentile of 26.6 μmol/L, respectively, and the umbilical cord blood vitC level (mean (SD)): 101.0 μmol/L (16.6) versus 78.5 μmol/L (27.8), p = 0.02; n = 12/16), while no relation to birth weight or Apgar score was observed. Diabetic women with complications of pregnancy had significantly lower vitC levels compared to the women without complications (mean (SD): 24.2 μmol/L (10.6) vs. 34.6 μmol/L (14.4), p = 0.01; n = 19 and 28, respectively) and the subgroup of women (about 28%) characterized by hypovitaminosis C (<23 μmol/L) had an increased relative risk of complications of pregnancy that was 2.4 fold higher than the one found in the group of women with a vitC status above this level (p = 0.02, 95% confidence interval 1.2–4.4). No correlation between diabetic characteristics of the pregnant women and vitC status was observed, while a negative association of maternal vitC with HbA1c at delivery was found at regression analysis (r = −0.39, p < 0.01, n = 46). In conclusion, our results may suggest that hypovitaminosis C in diabetic women is associated with increased risk of complications of pregnancy. View Full-Text
Keywords: type 1 diabetes; pregnancy; vitamin C; pregnancy outcome; pregnancy complications; cross-sectional study type 1 diabetes; pregnancy; vitamin C; pregnancy outcome; pregnancy complications; cross-sectional study
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Juhl, B.; Lauszus, F.F.; Lykkesfeldt, J. Poor Vitamin C Status Late in Pregnancy Is Associated with Increased Risk of Complications in Type 1 Diabetic Women: A Cross-Sectional Study. Nutrients 2017, 9, 186.

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