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Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1326; doi:10.3390/nu9121326

Dietary Intake of Protein from Different Sources and Weight Regain, Changes in Body Composition and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors after Weight Loss: The DIOGenes Study

1
Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School for Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, 6200MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
2
Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports (NEXS), Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark
3
Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6GG, UK
4
Department of Physiology and Nutrition, University of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
5
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University, 1000 Sofia, Bulgaria
6
Department of Social Medicine, Preventive Medicine & Nutrition Clinic, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion, Greece
7
Department of Clinical Nutrition, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbrücke, 14558 Nuthetal, Germany
8
Obesity Management Center, Institute of Endocrinology, 11694 Prague, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 25 October 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 6 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Approaches to Prevent Weight Regain)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [266 KB, uploaded 6 December 2017]

Abstract

An increase in dietary protein intake has been shown to improve weight loss maintenance in the DIOGenes trial. Here, we analysed whether the source of the dietary proteins influenced changes in body weight, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk factors during the weight maintenance period while following an energy-restricted diet. 489 overweight or obese participants of the DIOGenes trial from eight European countries were included. They successfully lost >8% of body weight and subsequently completed a six month weight maintenance period, in which they consumed an ad libitum diet varying in protein content and glycemic index. Dietary intake was estimated from three-day food diaries. A higher plant protein intake with a proportional decrease in animal protein intake did not affect body weight maintenance or cardiometabolic risk factors. A higher plant protein intake from non-cereal products instead of cereal products was associated with benefits for body weight maintenance and blood pressure. Substituting meat protein for protein from other animal sources increased insulin and HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance). This analysis suggests that not only the amount of dietary proteins, but also the source may be important for weight and cardiometabolic risk management. However, randomized trials are needed to test the causality of these associations. View Full-Text
Keywords: weight loss maintenance; diet; protein sources; cardiometabolic risk factors; obesity; plant protein; animal protein; meat protein; cereal protein weight loss maintenance; diet; protein sources; cardiometabolic risk factors; obesity; plant protein; animal protein; meat protein; cereal protein
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

van Baak, M.A.; Larsen, T.M.; Jebb, S.A.; Martinez, A.; Saris, W.H.M.; Handjieva-Darlenska, T.; Kafatos, A.; Pfeiffer, A.F.H.; Kunešová, M.; Astrup, A. Dietary Intake of Protein from Different Sources and Weight Regain, Changes in Body Composition and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors after Weight Loss: The DIOGenes Study. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1326.

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