Next Article in Journal
Slowly Digestible Carbohydrate for Balanced Energy: In Vitro and In Vivo Evidence
Previous Article in Journal
A Low Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index Is Associated with Progression to Dialysis in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1229; doi:10.3390/nu9111229

Concentrations of Carotenoids and Tocopherols in Breast Milk from Urban Chinese Mothers and Their Associations with Maternal Characteristics: A Cross-Sectional Study

1
Department of Nutrition & Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, No. 38 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191, China
2
Nestlé Research Center, Nestec, Vers-chez-les-blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland
3
Nestlé Research Center Beijing, Building E-F, No. 5 Dijin Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100095, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 October 2017 / Revised: 7 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 November 2017 / Published: 9 November 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [426 KB, uploaded 10 November 2017]   |  

Abstract

Milk composition remains the best estimate of infant requirements. The aims of this study were to quantify carotenoids and tocopherols in human milk from healthy Chinese mothers, and to explore their associations with lactation stage, region, socio-economic and obstetric characteristics, and dietary intake. Human milk was obtained from 509 healthy mothers, and concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols were analyzed by Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The mothers’ socio-economic and obstetric characteristics and dietary intake through a single 24-h dietary recall were evaluated. The median concentrations (μg/100 mL) of each component of 0–4 days, 5–11 days, 12–30 days, 31–60 days, 61–120 days, and 121–240 days postpartum were respectively as follows: β-carotene 8.0, 2.8, 2.1, 1.7, 1.9, 1.8; β-cryptoxanthin 6.2, 3.4, 2.4, 1.7, 1.8, 2.1; lutein 5.7, 7.0, 2.2, 2.9, 2.8, 3.7; lycopene 6.3, 2.5, 1.8, 1.4, 1.4, 1.5; zeaxanthin 1.0, 1.4, 0.8, 0.8, 1.0, 1.1; α-tocopherol 645, 382, 239, 206, 212, 211; γ-tocopherol 68, 63, 70, 73, 68, 88. The levels of those components varied significantly among different lactation stages and presented regional differences. Associations of carotenoid contents with maternal education, delivery mode, and present body mass index were found in multivariate analyses. These results suggested that lactation stage, region, and socio-economic and obstetric factors were associated with human milk concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols in healthy Chinese mothers. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast milk; carotenoids; tocopherols; colostrum; lactation stage; cross-sectional study breast milk; carotenoids; tocopherols; colostrum; lactation stage; cross-sectional study
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Xue, Y.; Campos-Giménez, E.; Redeuil, K.M.; Lévèques, A.; Actis-Goretta, L.; Vinyes-Pares, G.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, P.; Thakkar, S.K. Concentrations of Carotenoids and Tocopherols in Breast Milk from Urban Chinese Mothers and Their Associations with Maternal Characteristics: A Cross-Sectional Study. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1229.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top