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Nutrients 2017, 9(1), 74; doi:10.3390/nu9010074

Sex-Specific Muscular Maturation Responses Following Prenatal Exposure to Methylation-Related Micronutrients in Pigs

Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), Institute for Genome Biology, Wilhelm-Stahl-Allee 2, 18196 Dummerstorf, Germany
Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Animal Nutrition, Theodor-Lieser-Str. 11, 06120 Halle (Saale), Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 September 2016 / Revised: 21 December 2016 / Accepted: 22 December 2016 / Published: 18 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue B-Vitamins and One-Carbon Metabolism)
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Supplementation of micronutrients involved in DNA methylation, particularly during pregnancy, is recommended because of its impacts on human health, but further evidence is needed regarding the effects of over-supplementation and differences between sexes. Here, a porcine model was used to assess effects of maternal supplementation with one-carbon-cycle compounds during prenatal and postnatal stages on offspring muscle development. Sows received either a standard diet (CON) or a standard diet supplemented with folate, B6, B12, methionine, choline, and zinc (MET) throughout gestation. Myogenesis-, growth-, and nutrient utilization-related transcript expression was assessed using quantitative PCR. Organismal phenotype and gene expression effects differed significantly between males and females. Male MET-offspring showed increased fetal weight during late pregnancy but decreased live weight postnatally, with compensatory transcriptional responses comprising myogenic key drivers (Pax7, MyoD1, myogenin). In contrast, female weights were unaffected by diet, and mRNA abundances corresponded to a phenotype of cellular reorganization via FABP3, FABP4, SPP1 and Insulin-like Growth Factor-signaling. These findings in an animal model suggest that supplementation during pregnancy with methylation-related micronutrients can promote sex-specific myogenic maturation processes related to organismal growth and muscle metabolism. The usage of maternal dietary supplements should be more carefully considered regarding its ability to promote fetal and postnatal health. View Full-Text
Keywords: fetal programming; maternal diet; methyl donors; myogenesis; one-carbon cycle; pigs fetal programming; maternal diet; methyl donors; myogenesis; one-carbon cycle; pigs

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Oster, M.; Trakooljul, N.; Reyer, H.; Zeyner, A.; Muráni, E.; Ponsuksili, S.; Wimmers, K. Sex-Specific Muscular Maturation Responses Following Prenatal Exposure to Methylation-Related Micronutrients in Pigs. Nutrients 2017, 9, 74.

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