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Nutrients 2017, 9(1), 66; doi:10.3390/nu9010066

Validation of an Online Food Frequency Questionnaire against Doubly Labelled Water and 24 h Dietary Recalls in Pre-School Children

Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, NOVUM, 14183 Huddinge, Sweden
PROFITH “Promoting FITness and Health through Physical Activity” Research Group, Department of Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of Sports Sciences, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
Department of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 November 2016 / Revised: 22 December 2016 / Accepted: 11 January 2017 / Published: 13 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [390 KB, uploaded 13 January 2017]   |  


The development of easy-to-use and accurate methods to assess the intake of energy, foods and nutrients in pre-school children is needed. KidMeal-Q is an online food frequency questionnaire developed for the LifeGene prospective cohort study in Sweden. The aims of this study were to compare: (i) energy intake (EI) obtained using KidMeal-Q to total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water and (ii) the intake of certain foods measured using KidMeal-Q to intakes acquired by means of 24 h dietary recalls in 38 children aged 5.5 years. The mean EI calculated using KidMeal-Q was statistically different (p < 0.001) from TEE (4670 ± 1430 kJ/24 h and 6070 ± 690 kJ/24 h, respectively). Significant correlations were observed for vegetables, fruit juice and candy between KidMeal-Q and 24 h dietary recalls. Only sweetened beverage consumption was significantly different in mean intake (p < 0.001), as measured by KidMeal-Q and 24 h dietary recalls. In conclusion, KidMeal-Q had a relatively short answering time and comparative validity to other food frequency questionnaires. However, its accuracy needs to be improved before it can be used in studies in pre-school children. View Full-Text
Keywords: doubly labelled water; food frequency questionnaire; 24 h dietary recalls; pre-school doubly labelled water; food frequency questionnaire; 24 h dietary recalls; pre-school

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Delisle Nyström, C.; Henriksson, H.; Alexandrou, C.; Bergström, A.; Bonn, S.; Bälter, K.; Löf, M. Validation of an Online Food Frequency Questionnaire against Doubly Labelled Water and 24 h Dietary Recalls in Pre-School Children. Nutrients 2017, 9, 66.

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