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Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 504; doi:10.3390/nu8080504

Temporal Changes of Protein Composition in Breast Milk of Chinese Urban Mothers and Impact of Caesarean Section Delivery

1
Nestlé Research Center, Nestec Ltd., Lausanne 1000, Switzerland
2
Nestlé Research Center Beijing, Nestec Ltd., Beijing 100095, China
3
Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China
4
Department of Social Medicine and Health Education, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 June 2016 / Revised: 29 July 2016 / Accepted: 1 August 2016 / Published: 17 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients in Infancy)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1807 KB, uploaded 17 August 2016]   |  

Abstract

Human breast milk (BM) protein composition may be impacted by lactation stage or factors related to geographical location. The present study aimed at assessing the temporal changes of BM major proteins over lactation stages and the impact of mode of delivery on immune factors, in a large cohort of urban mothers in China. 450 BM samples, collected in three Chinese cities, covering 8 months of lactation were analyzed for α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, serum albumin, total caseins, immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM and IgG) and transforming growth factor (TGF) β1 and β2 content by microfluidic chip- or ELISA-based quantitative methods. Concentrations and changes over lactation were aligned with previous reports. α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, IgA, IgM and TGF-β1 contents followed similar variations characterized by highest concentrations in early lactation that rapidly decreased before remaining stable up to end of lactation. TGF-β2 content displayed same early dynamics before increasing again. Total caseins followed a different pattern, showing initial increase before decreasing back to starting values. Serum albumin and IgG levels appeared stable throughout lactation. In conclusion, BM content in major proteins of urban mothers in China was comparable with previous studies carried out in other parts of the world and C-section delivery had only very limited impact on BM immune factors. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast milk; proteins; immune factors; Chinese mothers; CAESAREAN-section breast milk; proteins; immune factors; Chinese mothers; CAESAREAN-section
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Affolter, M.; Garcia-Rodenas, C.L.; Vinyes-Pares, G.; Jenni, R.; Roggero, I.; Avanti-Nigro, O.; de Castro, C.A.; Zhao, A.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, P.; Thakkar, S.K.; Favre, L. Temporal Changes of Protein Composition in Breast Milk of Chinese Urban Mothers and Impact of Caesarean Section Delivery. Nutrients 2016, 8, 504.

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