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Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 486; doi:10.3390/nu8080486

The Effectiveness of Different Diet Strategies to Reduce Type 2 Diabetes Risk in Youth

1
The Children’s Hospital at Westmead, Westmead 2145, Australia
2
The Discipline of Child and Adolescent Health, The University of Sydney, Westmead 2145, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 June 2016 / Revised: 20 July 2016 / Accepted: 4 August 2016 / Published: 9 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low-Carbohydrate Diet for Weight Loss: Is There a Benefit?)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [233 KB, uploaded 9 August 2016]

Abstract

Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents has become a prominent clinical issue in recent decades. Increasing numbers of young people have risk factors for type 2 diabetes, particularly obesity, indicating the need for effective type 2 diabetes prevention strategies. The aim of this review was to identify specific dietary strategies that optimize improvements in risk factors for type 2 diabetes in youth and hence reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes development. Our review of the current literature indicates that dietary interventions lead to weight loss when intervention adherence is high. However, in addition to weight loss, a diet that is reduced in carbohydrates may optimize improvements in other type 2 diabetes risk factors, including insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. While further research is needed to confirm this finding, reduced carbohydrate diets may include a very low-carbohydrate diet, a very low-energy diet, a lower-glycemic-index diet, and/or an intermittent fasting diet. This array of dietary strategies provides a suite of intervention options for clinicians to recommend to young people at risk of type 2 diabetes. However, these findings are in contrast to current guidelines for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in adults which recommends a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet. View Full-Text
Keywords: type 2 diabetes; obesity; prevention; child; adolescent; youth; carbohydrate; diet intervention type 2 diabetes; obesity; prevention; child; adolescent; youth; carbohydrate; diet intervention
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gow, M.L.; Garnett, S.P.; Baur, L.A.; Lister, N.B. The Effectiveness of Different Diet Strategies to Reduce Type 2 Diabetes Risk in Youth. Nutrients 2016, 8, 486.

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