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Nutrients 2016, 8(7), 398; doi:10.3390/nu8070398

Thyroid Function among Breastfed Children with Chronically Excessive Iodine Intakes

1
Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo and Akershus University College, 0130 Oslo, Norway
2
Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bergen, 5018 Bergen, Norway
3
Research Department, Innlandet Hospital Trust, 2609 Lillehammer, Norway
4
Department of Medical Biochemistry, Oslo University Hospital, 0379 Oslo, Norway
5
Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, 0379 Oslo, Norway
6
Department of Endocrinology, Morbid Obesity and Preventive Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, 0424 Oslo, Norway
7
Neonatology Unit, University Hospital La Paz, University of Madrid, 28046 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 May 2016 / Revised: 16 June 2016 / Accepted: 23 June 2016 / Published: 28 June 2016
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Abstract

Iodine excess may impair thyroid function and trigger adverse health consequences for children. This study aims to describe iodine status among breastfed infants with high iodine exposure in the Saharawi refugee camps Algeria, and further assess thyroid function and iodine status among the children three years later. In 2010, a cross-sectional study among 111 breastfed children aged 0–6 months was performed (baseline study). In 2013, a second cross-sectional study (follow-up study) was conducted among 289 children; 213 newly selected and 76 children retrieved from baseline. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC) were measured at baseline. UIC, thyroid hormones and serum thyroglobulin (Tg) were measured at follow-up. At baseline and follow-up, 88% and 72% had excessive iodine intakes (UIC ≥ 300 µg/L), respectively. At follow-up, 24% had a thyroid hormone disturbance and/or elevated serum Tg, including 9% with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), 4% with elevated fT3 and 14% with elevated Tg. Children with SCH had poorer linear growth and were more likely to be underweight than the children without SCH. Excessive iodine intakes and thyroid disturbances were common among children below four years of age in our study. Further, SCH seemed to be associated with poor growth and weight. View Full-Text
Keywords: iodine excess; urinary iodine concentration; breast milk iodine; iodine intake; thyroid function tests; hypothyroidism; thyroglobulin iodine excess; urinary iodine concentration; breast milk iodine; iodine intake; thyroid function tests; hypothyroidism; thyroglobulin
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Aakre, I.; Strand, T.A.; Bjøro, T.; Norheim, I.; Barikmo, I.; Ares, S.; Alcorta, M.D.; Henjum, S. Thyroid Function among Breastfed Children with Chronically Excessive Iodine Intakes. Nutrients 2016, 8, 398.

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