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Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 376; doi:10.3390/nu8060376

Osteoporosis: Modern Paradigms for Last Century’s Bones

School of Food and Nutrition, Massey Institute of Food Science and Technology, Massey University, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
Based on the Muriel Bell Lecture delivered by Marlena C. Kruger in 2015.
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Received: 25 March 2016 / Revised: 13 June 2016 / Accepted: 14 June 2016 / Published: 17 June 2016
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Abstract

The skeleton is a metabolically active organ undergoing continuously remodelling. With ageing and menopause the balance shifts to increased resorption, leading to a reduction in bone mineral density and disruption of bone microarchitecture. Bone mass accretion and bone metabolism are influenced by systemic hormones as well as genetic and lifestyle factors. The classic paradigm has described osteoporosis as being a “brittle bone” disease that occurs in post-menopausal, thin, Caucasian women with low calcium intakes and/or vitamin D insufficiency. However, a study of black women in Africa demonstrated that higher proportions of body fat did not protect bone health. Isoflavone interventions in Asian postmenopausal women have produced inconsistent bone health benefits, due in part to population heterogeneity in enteric bacterial metabolism of daidzein. A comparison of women and men in several Asian countries identified significant differences between countries in the rate of bone health decline, and a high incidence rate of osteoporosis in both sexes. These studies have revealed significant differences in genetic phenotypes, debunking long-held beliefs and leading to new paradigms in study design. Current studies are now being specifically designed to assess genotype differences between Caucasian, Asian, African, and other phenotypes, and exploring alternative methodology to measure bone architecture. View Full-Text
Keywords: osteoporosis; bone health; ageing; bone mineral density osteoporosis; bone health; ageing; bone mineral density
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kruger, M.C.; Wolber, F.M. Osteoporosis: Modern Paradigms for Last Century’s Bones. Nutrients 2016, 8, 376.

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