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Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 325; doi:10.3390/nu8060325

Food Group Intakes as Determinants of Iodine Status among US Adult Population

1
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, 469 Wilson Road, Trout FSHN Building, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
2
Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, Ewha Womans University, Human Ecology Building, 52, Ewhayeodae-gil, Sodaemun-gu, Seoul 03760, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 December 2015 / Revised: 16 May 2016 / Accepted: 24 May 2016 / Published: 26 May 2016
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Abstract

Adequate intake of iodine is essential for proper thyroid function. Although dietary reference intakes for iodine have been established, iodine intake cannot be estimated due to the lack of data on iodine contents in foods. We aimed to determine if food group intakes can predict iodine status assessed by urinary iodine concentration (UIC) from spot urine samples of 5967 US adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2012. From an in-person 24-h dietary recall, all foods consumed were aggregated into 12 main food groups using the individual food code of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA); dairy products, meat/poultry, fish/seaweed, eggs, legumes/nuts/seeds, breads, other grain products, fruits, vegetables, fats/oils, sugars/sweets, and beverages. Chi-square test, Spearman correlation, and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the predictability of food group intakes in iodine status assessed by UIC. From the multiple linear regressions, the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads, and iodine-containing supplement use were positively associated with UIC, whereas beverage consumption was negatively associated with UIC. Among various food group intakes, dairy product intake was the most important determinant of iodine status in both US men and women. Subpopulation groups with a high risk of iodine deficiency may need nutritional education regarding the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads to maintain an adequate iodine status. Efforts toward a better understanding of iodine content in each food and a continued monitoring of iodine status within US adults are both warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: iodine status; urinary iodine concentration; food group intake; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey iodine status; urinary iodine concentration; food group intake; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, K.W.; Shin, D.; Cho, M.S.; Song, W.O. Food Group Intakes as Determinants of Iodine Status among US Adult Population. Nutrients 2016, 8, 325.

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