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Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 319; doi:10.3390/nu8060319

Crucial Role of Vitamin D in the Musculoskeletal System

Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, BG Trauma Center, Siegfried Weller Institut, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, Tübingen D-72076, Germany
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Received: 15 March 2016 / Revised: 10 May 2016 / Accepted: 11 May 2016 / Published: 1 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D: Current Issues and New Perspectives)
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Abstract

Vitamin D is well known to exert multiple functions in bone biology, autoimmune diseases, cell growth, inflammation or neuromuscular and other immune functions. It is a fat-soluble vitamin present in many foods. It can be endogenously produced by ultraviolet rays from sunlight when the skin is exposed to initiate vitamin D synthesis. However, since vitamin D is biologically inert when obtained from sun exposure or diet, it must first be activated in human beings before functioning. The kidney and the liver play here a crucial role by hydroxylation of vitamin D to 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the liver and to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in the kidney. In the past decades, it has been proven that vitamin D deficiency is involved in many diseases. Due to vitamin D’s central role in the musculoskeletal system and consequently the strong negative impact on bone health in cases of vitamin D deficiency, our aim was to underline its importance in bone physiology by summarizing recent findings on the correlation of vitamin D status and rickets, osteomalacia, osteopenia, primary and secondary osteoporosis as well as sarcopenia and musculoskeletal pain. While these diseases all positively correlate with a vitamin D deficiency, there is a great controversy regarding the appropriate vitamin D supplementation as both positive and negative effects on bone mineral density, musculoskeletal pain and incidence of falls are reported. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; vitamin D deficiency; bone health; muscle pain; chronic disease; supplementation vitamin D; vitamin D deficiency; bone health; muscle pain; chronic disease; supplementation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Wintermeyer, E.; Ihle, C.; Ehnert, S.; Stöckle, U.; Ochs, G.; de Zwart, P.; Flesch, I.; Bahrs, C.; Nussler, A.K. Crucial Role of Vitamin D in the Musculoskeletal System. Nutrients 2016, 8, 319.

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