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Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 315; doi:10.3390/nu8050315

Variation in the Oral Processing of Everyday Meals Is Associated with Fullness and Meal Size; A Potential Nudge to Reduce Energy Intake?

1
Nutrition and Behaviour Unit, School of Experimental Psychology, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TU, UK
2
Behavior and Perception group, Nestlé Research Centre, Lausanne 1000, Switzerland
3
Clinical Nutrition Research Centre, Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117599, Singapore
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 February 2016 / Revised: 24 March 2016 / Accepted: 1 April 2016 / Published: 21 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Appetite)
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Abstract

Laboratory studies have demonstrated that experimental manipulations of oral processing can have a marked effect on energy intake. Here, we explored whether variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals could affect post-meal fullness and meal size. In Study 1, female participants (N = 12) attended the laboratory over 20 lunchtime sessions to consume a 400-kcal portion of a different commercially available pre-packaged meal. Prior to consumption, expected satiation was assessed. During each meal, oral processing was characterised using: (i) video-recordings of the mouth and (ii) real-time measures of plate weight. Hunger and fullness ratings were elicited pre- and post-consumption, and for a further three hours. Foods that were eaten slowly had higher expected satiation and delivered more satiation and satiety. Building on these findings, in Study 2 we selected two meals (identical energy density) from Study 1 that were equally liked but maximised differences in oral processing. On separate days, male and female participants (N = 24) consumed a 400-kcal portion of either the “fast” or “slow” meal followed by an ad libitum meal (either the same food or a dessert). When continuing with the same food, participants consumed less of the slow meal. Further, differences in food intake during the ad libitum meal were not compensated at a subsequent snacking opportunity an hour later. Together, these findings suggest that variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals can affect fullness after consuming a fixed portion and can also impact meal size. Modifying food form to encourage increased oral processing (albeit to a lesser extent than in experimental manipulations) might represent a viable target for food manufacturers to help to nudge consumers to manage their weight. View Full-Text
Keywords: oral processing behaviours; satiation; satiety; expected satiation; liking; appetite; nudge theory oral processing behaviours; satiation; satiety; expected satiation; liking; appetite; nudge theory
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Ferriday, D.; Bosworth, M.L.; Godinot, N.; Martin, N.; Forde, C.G.; Van Den Heuvel, E.; Appleton, S.L.; Mercer Moss, F.J.; Rogers, P.J.; Brunstrom, J.M. Variation in the Oral Processing of Everyday Meals Is Associated with Fullness and Meal Size; A Potential Nudge to Reduce Energy Intake? Nutrients 2016, 8, 315.

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