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Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 302; doi:10.3390/nu8050302

Hormonal and Thirst Modulated Maintenance of Fluid Balance in Young Women with Different Levels of Habitual Fluid Consumption

1
Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
2
Division of Kinesiology and Health, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, USA
3
Department of Health Sciences and Nursing, University of Hartford, West Hartford, CT 06117, USA
4
Hydration & Health Department, Danone Research, Palaiseau 91767, France
5
Department of Military and Emergency Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
6
Department of Human Sciences, the Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 February 2016 / Revised: 21 April 2016 / Accepted: 11 May 2016 / Published: 18 May 2016
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Abstract

Background: Surprisingly little is known about the physiological and perceptual differences of women who consume different volumes of water each day. The purposes of this investigation were to (a) analyze blood osmolality, arginine vasopressin (AVP), and aldosterone; (b) assess the responses of physiological, thirst, and hydration indices; and (c) compare the responses of individuals with high and low total water intake (TWI; HIGH and LOW, respectively) when consuming similar volumes of water each day and when their habitual total water intake was modified. Methods: In a single-blind controlled experiment, we measured the 24 h total water intake (TWI; water + beverages + food moisture) of 120 young women. Those who consumed the highest (HIGH, 3.2 ± 0.6 L·day−1, mean ± SD) and the lowest (LOW, 1.6 ± 0.5 L·day−1) mean habitual TWI were identified and compared. Outcome variables were measured during two ad libitum baseline days, a four-day intervention of either decreased TWI (HIGH) or increased TWI (LOW), and one ad libitum recovery day. Results: During the four-day intervention, HIGH and LOW experienced differences in thirst (p = 0.002); also, a statistically significant change of AVP occurred (main effect of TWI and day, p < 0.001), with no effect (TWI or day) on aldosterone and serum osmolality. Urine osmolality and volume distinguished HIGH from LOW (p = 0.002) when they consumed similar 24 h TWI. View Full-Text
Keywords: arginine vasopressin; aldosterone; thirst; osmolality; urine arginine vasopressin; aldosterone; thirst; osmolality; urine
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Johnson, E.C.; Muñoz, C.X.; Jimenez, L.; Le Bellego, L.; Kupchak, B.R.; Kraemer, W.J.; Casa, D.J.; Maresh, C.M.; Armstrong, L.E. Hormonal and Thirst Modulated Maintenance of Fluid Balance in Young Women with Different Levels of Habitual Fluid Consumption. Nutrients 2016, 8, 302.

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