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Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 300; doi:10.3390/nu8050300

Dietary Patterns in Pregnancy in New Zealand—Influence of Maternal Socio-Demographic, Health and Lifestyle Factors

1
Centre for Longitudinal Research—He Ara ki Mua, University of Auckland, Auckland 1072, New Zealand
2
Discipline of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Medical Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland 1072, New Zealand
3
Department of Paediatrics, Child & Youth Health, University of Auckland, Auckland 1072, New Zealand
4
Starship Children’s Hospital, Auckland District Health Board, Auckland 1148, New Zealand
5
Child Health, Waikato District Health Board, Hamilton 3204, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 March 2016 / Revised: 21 April 2016 / Accepted: 10 May 2016 / Published: 19 May 2016
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Abstract

Exploration of dietary pattern associations within a multi-ethnic society context has been limited. We aimed to describe dietary patterns of 5664 pregnant women from the Growing Up in New Zealand study, and investigate associations between these patterns and maternal socio-demographic, place of birth, health and lifestyle factors. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire prior to the birth of their child. Principal components analysis was used to extract dietary patterns and multivariable analyses used to determine associations. Four dietary components were extracted. Higher scores on, ‘Junk’ and ‘Traditional/White bread’, were associated with decreasing age, lower educational levels, being of Pacific or Māori ethnicity and smoking. Higher scores on, ‘Health conscious’ and ‘Fusion/Protein’, were associated with increasing age, better self-rated health, lower pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and not smoking. Higher scores on ‘Junk’ and ‘Health conscious’ were associated with being born in New Zealand (NZ), whereas higher scores on ‘Fusion/Protein’ was associated with being born outside NZ and being of non-European ethnicity, particularly Asian. High scores on the ‘Health conscious’ dietary pattern showed the highest odds of adherence to the pregnancy dietary guidelines. In this cohort of pregnant women different dietary patterns were associated with migration, ethnicity, socio-demographic characteristics, health behaviors and adherence to dietary guidelines. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary patterns; pregnancy; principal component analysis; ethnicity dietary patterns; pregnancy; principal component analysis; ethnicity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wall, C.R.; Gammon, C.S.; Bandara, D.K.; Grant, C.C.; Atatoa Carr, P.E.; Morton, S.M.B. Dietary Patterns in Pregnancy in New Zealand—Influence of Maternal Socio-Demographic, Health and Lifestyle Factors. Nutrients 2016, 8, 300.

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