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Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 285; doi:10.3390/nu8050285

Dietary Intake of the Urban Black Population of Cape Town: The Cardiovascular Risk in Black South Africans (CRIBSA) Study

1
Division of Nutrition, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town 7925, South Africa
2
Department of Logistics, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch 7600, South Africa
3
Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town 7925, South Africa
4
Biostatistics Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town 7505, South Africa
5
Non-communicable Diseases Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Durban 4001, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 March 2016 / Revised: 29 April 2016 / Accepted: 9 May 2016 / Published: 13 May 2016
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Abstract

Introduction: To determine dietary intake of 19 to 64 years old urban Africans in Cape Town in 2009 and examine the changes between 1990 and 2009. Methods: A representative cross-sectional sample (n = 544), stratified by gender and age was randomly selected in 2009 from the same areas sampled in 1990. Socio-demographic data and a 24-h dietary recall were obtained by trained field workers. The associations of dietary data with an asset index and degree of urbanization were assessed. Results: Fat intakes were higher in 19–44-year-old men (32% energy (E)) and women (33.4%E) in 2009 compared with 1990 (men: 25.9%E, women: 27.0%E) while carbohydrate intakes were lower in 2009 (men 53.2%E, women: 55.5%E) than in 1990 (men: 61.3%E; women: 62%E) while sugar intake increased significantly (p < 0.01) in women. There were significant positive correlations between urbanization and total fat (p = 0.016), saturated fat (p = 0.001), monounsaturated fat (p = 0.002) and fat as a %E intake (p = 0.046). Urbanization was inversely associated with intake of carbohydrate %E (p < 0.001). Overall micronutrient intakes improved significantly compared with 1990. It should also be noted that energy and macronutrient intakes were all significant in a linear regression model using mean adequacy ratio (MAR) as a measure of dietary quality in 2009, as was duration of urbanization. Discussion: The higher fat and lower carbohydrate %E intakes in this population demonstrate a transition to a more urbanized diet over last two decades. These dietary changes reflect the nutrition transitions that typically occur as a longer time is spent in urban centers. View Full-Text
Keywords: South Africa; black; urban; dietary intake; energy; fats; carbohydrates; nutrition transition South Africa; black; urban; dietary intake; energy; fats; carbohydrates; nutrition transition
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Steyn, N.P.; Jaffer, N.; Nel, J.; Levitt, N.; Steyn, K.; Lombard, C.; Peer, N. Dietary Intake of the Urban Black Population of Cape Town: The Cardiovascular Risk in Black South Africans (CRIBSA) Study. Nutrients 2016, 8, 285.

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