Next Article in Journal
Effect of a Semi-Purified Oligosaccharide-Enriched Fraction from Caprine Milk on Barrier Integrity and Mucin Production of Co-Culture Models of the Small and Large Intestinal Epithelium
Previous Article in Journal
Influence of Gender and SNPs in GPX1 Gene on Biomarkers of Selenium Status in Healthy Brazilians
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 266; doi:10.3390/nu8050266

Sun Exposure Guidelines and Serum Vitamin D Status in Denmark: The StatusD Study

1
Unit of Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen DK-2100, Denmark
2
Department of Prevention and Information, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen DK-2100, Denmark
3
Danish Health Authority, Health Promotion, Copenhagen DK-2300, Denmark
4
Technical University of Denmark, National Food Institute, Division for Diet, Disease Prevention and Toxicology, Research Group for Risk-Benefit, Søborg DK-2860, Denmark
5
Statens Serum Institute, Department of Congenital Disorders, Danish Centre for Neonatal Screening, Copenhagen DK-2300, Denmark
6
Unit of Statistics, Bioinformatics and Registry, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen DK-2100, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 February 2016 / Revised: 14 April 2016 / Accepted: 2 May 2016 / Published: 5 May 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [879 KB, uploaded 5 May 2016]   |  

Abstract

Little is known on how vitamin D status is affected by adherence to UVB-limiting sun exposure guidelines. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between adherence to the Danish sun exposure guidelines and vitamin D status. In total, 3194 Danes (2625 adults, 569 children) were recruited among the general population, and more than 92% had blood samples taken both autumn and spring. Using linear regression, we associated serum vitamin D concentrations to questionnaire responses on: seeking shade, wearing a sunhat, wearing protective clothing or using sunscreen. The odds ratio (OR) of either low (<25 or 50 nmol/L) or adequate/high (≥50 nmol/L) vitamin D status was examined using logistic regression. For adults, those who always sought shade or wore protective clothing compared to those who did not had lower levels of vitamin D (autumn concentrations for shade: 7.2 nmol/L lower (−11.0–−3.6 nmol/L); for protective clothing: 9.9 nmol/L lower (−13.6–−6.2 nmol/L). Adherence to all four guidelines was also associated with lower vitamin D concentrations (autumn: 9.7 nmol/L lower (−14.3–−5.1 nmol/L). Use of sunscreen was associated with adequate vitamin D status, as those who always sought shade compared to those who did not had an OR (95% CI) of 1.68 (1.25–2.35) of having ≥50 nmol/L during both spring and autumn. No associations were found with wearing a sunhat, and there were no clear associations for children. In conclusion, adherence to the sun exposure guidelines on shade and protective clothing was associated with lower vitamin D status among Danish adults, but not children. View Full-Text
Keywords: skin cancer; StatusD; sun exposure guidelines; vitamin D skin cancer; StatusD; sun exposure guidelines; vitamin D
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hansen, L.; Tjønneland, A.; Køster, B.; Brot, C.; Andersen, R.; Lundqvist, M.; Christensen, J.; Olsen, A. Sun Exposure Guidelines and Serum Vitamin D Status in Denmark: The StatusD Study. Nutrients 2016, 8, 266.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top