Sun Exposure Guidelines and Serum Vitamin D Status in Denmark: The StatusD Study
AbstractLittle is known on how vitamin D status is affected by adherence to UVB-limiting sun exposure guidelines. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between adherence to the Danish sun exposure guidelines and vitamin D status. In total, 3194 Danes (2625 adults, 569 children) were recruited among the general population, and more than 92% had blood samples taken both autumn and spring. Using linear regression, we associated serum vitamin D concentrations to questionnaire responses on: seeking shade, wearing a sunhat, wearing protective clothing or using sunscreen. The odds ratio (OR) of either low (<25 or 50 nmol/L) or adequate/high (≥50 nmol/L) vitamin D status was examined using logistic regression. For adults, those who always sought shade or wore protective clothing compared to those who did not had lower levels of vitamin D (autumn concentrations for shade: 7.2 nmol/L lower (−11.0–−3.6 nmol/L); for protective clothing: 9.9 nmol/L lower (−13.6–−6.2 nmol/L). Adherence to all four guidelines was also associated with lower vitamin D concentrations (autumn: 9.7 nmol/L lower (−14.3–−5.1 nmol/L). Use of sunscreen was associated with adequate vitamin D status, as those who always sought shade compared to those who did not had an OR (95% CI) of 1.68 (1.25–2.35) of having ≥50 nmol/L during both spring and autumn. No associations were found with wearing a sunhat, and there were no clear associations for children. In conclusion, adherence to the sun exposure guidelines on shade and protective clothing was associated with lower vitamin D status among Danish adults, but not children. View Full-Text
- Supplementary File 1:
PDF-Document (PDF, 114 KB)
Share & Cite This Article
Hansen, L.; Tjønneland, A.; Køster, B.; Brot, C.; Andersen, R.; Lundqvist, M.; Christensen, J.; Olsen, A. Sun Exposure Guidelines and Serum Vitamin D Status in Denmark: The StatusD Study. Nutrients 2016, 8, 266.
Hansen L, Tjønneland A, Køster B, Brot C, Andersen R, Lundqvist M, Christensen J, Olsen A. Sun Exposure Guidelines and Serum Vitamin D Status in Denmark: The StatusD Study. Nutrients. 2016; 8(5):266.Chicago/Turabian Style
Hansen, Louise; Tjønneland, Anne; Køster, Brian; Brot, Christine; Andersen, Rikke; Lundqvist, Marika; Christensen, Jane; Olsen, Anja. 2016. "Sun Exposure Guidelines and Serum Vitamin D Status in Denmark: The StatusD Study." Nutrients 8, no. 5: 266.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.