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Nutrients 2016, 8(4), 207; doi:10.3390/nu8040207

Associations between Macronutrient Intake and Obstructive Sleep Apnoea as Well as Self-Reported Sleep Symptoms: Results from a Cohort of Community Dwelling Australian Men

1
Population Research and Outcome Studies, the University of Adelaide, SAHMRI, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
2
Freemasons Foundation Centre for Men’s Health, the University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
3
Health Observatory, Discipline of Medicine, the Queen Elizabeth Hospital Campus, the University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5011, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 February 2016 / Revised: 29 March 2016 / Accepted: 30 March 2016 / Published: 8 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Pattern and Health)
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Abstract

Background: macronutrient intake has been found to affect sleep parameters including obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in experimental studies, but there is uncertainty at the population level in adults. Methods: cross-sectional analysis was conducted of participants in the Men Androgen Inflammation Lifestyle Environment and Stress cohort (n = 784, age 35–80 years). Dietary intake was measured by a validated food frequency questionnaire. Self-reported poor sleep quality and daytime sleepiness were measured by questionnaires. Overnight in-home polysomnography (PSG) was conducted among participants with without previously diagnosed OSA. Results: after adjusting for demographic, lifestyle factors, and chronic diseases, the highest quartile of fat intake was positively associated with excessive daytime sleepiness (relative risk ratio (RRR) = 1.78, 95% CI 1.10, 2.89) and apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) ≥20, (RRR = 2.98, 95% CI 1.20–7.38). Body mass index mediated the association between fat intake and AHI (30%), but not daytime sleepiness. There were no associations between other intake of macronutrient and sleep outcomes. Conclusion: high fat is associated with daytime sleepiness and AHI. Sleep outcomes are generally not assessed in studies investigating the effects of varying macronutrient diets on weight loss. The current result highlights the potential public health significance of doing so. View Full-Text
Keywords: macronutrient intake; fat intake; apnoea hypopnea index; polysomnography; daytime sleepiness macronutrient intake; fat intake; apnoea hypopnea index; polysomnography; daytime sleepiness
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Cao, Y.; Wittert, G.; Taylor, A.W.; Adams, R.; Shi, Z. Associations between Macronutrient Intake and Obstructive Sleep Apnoea as Well as Self-Reported Sleep Symptoms: Results from a Cohort of Community Dwelling Australian Men. Nutrients 2016, 8, 207.

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