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Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 147; doi:10.3390/nu8030147

The Potential Protective Action of Vitamin D in Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Pancreatic Islet Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
Received: 20 November 2015 / Revised: 26 February 2016 / Accepted: 29 February 2016 / Published: 5 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Metabolic Dysfunction)
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Abstract

Vitamin D deficiency (i.e., hypovitaminosis D) is associated with increased insulin resistance, impaired insulin secretion, and poorly controlled glucose homeostasis, and thus is correlated with the risk of metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The liver plays key roles in glucose and lipid metabolism, and its dysregulation leads to abnormalities in hepatic glucose output and triglyceride accumulation. Meanwhile, the pancreatic islets are constituted in large part by insulin-secreting β cells. Consequently, islet dysfunction, such as occurs in T2DM, produces hyperglycemia. In this review, we provide a critical appraisal of the modulatory actions of vitamin D in hepatic insulin sensitivity and islet insulin secretion, and we discuss the potential roles of a local vitamin D signaling in regulating hepatic and pancreatic islet functions. This information provides a scientific basis for establishing the benefits of the maintenance, or dietary manipulation, of adequate vitamin D status in the prevention and management of obesity-induced T2DM and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcitriol; glucose homeostasis; HepG2; hypovitaminosis D; insulin secretion; lipid metabolism calcitriol; glucose homeostasis; HepG2; hypovitaminosis D; insulin secretion; lipid metabolism
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Leung, P.S. The Potential Protective Action of Vitamin D in Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Pancreatic Islet Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Nutrients 2016, 8, 147.

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