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Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 108; doi:10.3390/nu8030108

Metabolic Effects of a 24-Week Energy-Restricted Intervention Combined with Low or High Dairy Intake in Overweight Women: An NMR-Based Metabolomics Investigation

1
Department of Food Science, Aarhus University, Kirstinebjergvej 10, Aarslev DK-5792, Denmark
2
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035, China
3
Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C DK-1958, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 January 2016 / Revised: 10 February 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2016 / Published: 23 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Products and Human Health)
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Abstract

We investigated the effect of a 24-week energy-restricted intervention with low or high dairy intake (LD or HD) on the metabolic profiles of urine, blood and feces in overweight/obese women by NMR spectroscopy combined with ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA). A significant effect of dairy intake was found on the urine metabolome. HD intake increased urinary citrate, creatinine and urea excretion, and decreased urinary excretion of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and hippurate relative to the LD intake, suggesting that HD intake was associated with alterations in protein catabolism, energy metabolism and gut microbial activity. In addition, a significant time effect on the blood metabolome was attributed to a decrease in blood lipid and lipoprotein levels due to the energy restriction. For the fecal metabolome, a trend for a diet effect was found and a series of metabolites, such as acetate, butyrate, propionate, malonate, cholesterol and glycerol tended to be affected. Overall, even though these effects were not accompanied by a higher weight loss, the present metabolomics data reveal that a high dairy intake is associated with endogenous metabolic effects and effects on gut microbial activity that potentially impact body weight regulation and health. Moreover, ASCA has a great potential for exploring the effect of intervention factors and identifying altered metabolites in a multi-factorial metabolomic study. View Full-Text
Keywords: ASCA; body weight; dairy; metabolome; feces; short-chain fatty acid ASCA; body weight; dairy; metabolome; feces; short-chain fatty acid
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zheng, H.; Lorenzen, J.K.; Astrup, A.; Larsen, L.H.; Yde, C.C.; Clausen, M.R.; Bertram, H.C. Metabolic Effects of a 24-Week Energy-Restricted Intervention Combined with Low or High Dairy Intake in Overweight Women: An NMR-Based Metabolomics Investigation. Nutrients 2016, 8, 108.

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