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Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 79; doi:10.3390/nu8020079

Suppression of Endogenous Glucose Production by Isoleucine and Valine and Impact of Diet Composition

1
National Institute of Geriatrics, Ministry of Health, Periférico Sur No. 2767, Col. San Jerónimo Lídice. Del. Magdalena Contreras, Mexico City 10200, Mexico
2
Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Yeshiva University, 1300 Morris Park Ave, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 November 2015 / Revised: 6 January 2016 / Accepted: 1 February 2016 / Published: 15 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Metabolic Dysfunction)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [420 KB, uploaded 15 February 2016]   |  

Abstract

Leucine has been shown to acutely inhibit hepatic glucose production in rodents by a mechanism requiring its metabolism to acetyl-CoA in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH). In the early stages, all branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are metabolized by a shared set of enzymes to produce a ketoacid, which is later metabolized to acetyl-CoA. Consequently, isoleucine and valine may also modulate glucose metabolism. To examine this possibility we performed intrahypothalamic infusions of isoleucine or valine in rats and assessed whole body glucose kinetics under basal conditions and during euglycemic pancreatic clamps. Furthermore, because high fat diet (HFD) consumption is known to interfere with central glucoregulation, we also asked whether the action of BCAAs was affected by HFD. We fed rats a lard-rich diet for a short interval and examined their response to central leucine. The results showed that both isoleucine and valine individually lowered blood glucose by decreasing liver glucose production. Furthermore, the action of the BCAA leucine was markedly attenuated by HFD feeding. We conclude that all three BCAAs centrally modulate glucose metabolism in the liver and that their action is disrupted by HFD-induced insulin resistance. View Full-Text
Keywords: branched-chain amino acids; leucine; isoleucine; valine; glucose metabolism; nutrient sensing; hypothalamus; liver branched-chain amino acids; leucine; isoleucine; valine; glucose metabolism; nutrient sensing; hypothalamus; liver
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Arrieta-Cruz, I.; Su, Y.; Gutiérrez-Juárez, R. Suppression of Endogenous Glucose Production by Isoleucine and Valine and Impact of Diet Composition. Nutrients 2016, 8, 79.

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