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Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 63; doi:10.3390/nu8020063

Effects of Dietary Protein Source and Quantity during Weight Loss on Appetite, Energy Expenditure, and Cardio-Metabolic Responses

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
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Received: 3 December 2015 / Revised: 11 January 2016 / Accepted: 14 January 2016 / Published: 26 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Appetite)
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Abstract

Higher protein meals increase satiety and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF) in acute settings, but it is unclear whether these effects remain after a person becomes acclimated to energy restriction or a given protein intake. This study assessed the effects of predominant protein source (omnivorous, beef/pork vs. lacto-ovo vegetarian, soy/legume) and quantity (10%, 20%, or 30% of energy from protein) on appetite, energy expenditure, and cardio-metabolic indices during energy restriction (ER) in overweight and obese adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to one protein source and then consumed diets with different quantities of protein (4 weeks each) in a randomized crossover manner. Perceived appetite ratings (free-living and in-lab), TEF, and fasting cardio-metabolic indices were assessed at the end of each 4-week period. Protein source and quantity did not affect TEF, hunger, or desire to eat, other than a modestly higher daily composite fullness rating with 30% vs. 10% protein diet (p = 0.03). While the 20% and 30% protein diets reduced cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and APO-B vs. 10% protein (p < 0.05), protein source did not affect cardio-metabolic indices. In conclusion, diets varying in protein quantity with either beef/pork or soy/legume as the predominant source have minimal effects on appetite control, energy expenditure and cardio-metabolic risk factors during ER-induced weight loss. View Full-Text
Keywords: high-protein diets; satiety; thermogenesis; metabolic syndrome; weight loss high-protein diets; satiety; thermogenesis; metabolic syndrome; weight loss
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Li, J.; Armstrong, C.L.H.; Campbell, W.W. Effects of Dietary Protein Source and Quantity during Weight Loss on Appetite, Energy Expenditure, and Cardio-Metabolic Responses. Nutrients 2016, 8, 63.

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