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Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 773; doi:10.3390/nu8120773

The Effect of Low Dose Iron and Zinc Intake on Child Micronutrient Status and Development during the First 1000 Days of Life: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

1
GroundWork, Fläsch 7306, Switzerland
2
Harvest Plus, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC 20006-1002, USA
Both authors have contributed equally to the work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 September 2016 / Revised: 23 November 2016 / Accepted: 24 November 2016 / Published: 30 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients in Infancy)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [765 KB, uploaded 30 November 2016]   |  

Abstract

Adequate supply of micronutrients during the first 1000 days is essential for normal development and healthy life. We aimed to investigate if interventions administering dietary doses up to the recommended nutrient intake (RNI) of iron and zinc within the window from conception to age 2 years have the potential to influence nutritional status and development of children. To address this objective, a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and quasi-randomized fortification, biofortification, and supplementation trials in women (pregnant and lactating) and children (6–23 months) delivering iron or zinc in doses up to the recommended nutrient intake (RNI) levels was conducted. Supplying iron or zinc during pregnancy had no effects on birth outcomes. There were limited or no data on the effects of iron/zinc during pregnancy and lactation on child iron/zinc status, growth, morbidity, and psychomotor and mental development. Delivering up to 15 mg iron/day during infancy increased mean hemoglobin by 4 g/L (p < 0.001) and mean serum ferritin concentration by 17.6 µg/L (p < 0.001) and reduced the risk for anemia by 41% (p < 0.001), iron deficiency by 78% (ID; p < 0.001) and iron deficiency anemia by 80% (IDA; p < 0.001), but had no effect on growth or psychomotor development. Providing up to 10 mg of additional zinc during infancy increased plasma zinc concentration by 2.03 µmol/L (p < 0.001) and reduced the risk of zinc deficiency by 47% (p < 0.001). Further, we observed positive effects on child weight for age z-score (WAZ) (p < 0.05), weight for height z-score (WHZ) (p < 0.05), but not on height for age z-score (HAZ) or the risk for stunting, wasting, and underweight. There are no studies covering the full 1000 days window and the effects of iron and zinc delivered during pregnancy and lactation on child outcomes are ambiguous, but low dose daily iron and zinc use during 6–23 months of age has a positive effect on child iron and zinc status. View Full-Text
Keywords: Iron; zinc; iron status; zinc status; 1000 days window; infant and young child nutrition; fortification; biofortification Iron; zinc; iron status; zinc status; 1000 days window; infant and young child nutrition; fortification; biofortification
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MDPI and ACS Style

Petry, N.; Olofin, I.; Boy, E.; Donahue Angel, M.; Rohner, F. The Effect of Low Dose Iron and Zinc Intake on Child Micronutrient Status and Development during the First 1000 Days of Life: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2016, 8, 773.

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