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Nutrients 2016, 8(11), 682; doi:10.3390/nu8110682

Liver Fatty Acid Composition and Inflammation in Mice Fed with High-Carbohydrate Diet or High-Fat Diet

1
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, State University of Maringá, Maringá 87020-900, Paraná, Brazil
2
Department of Chemistry, State University of Maringá, Maringá 87020-900, Paraná, Brazil
3
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-900, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 August 2016 / Revised: 17 October 2016 / Accepted: 24 October 2016 / Published: 29 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Carbohydrate Diet and Human Health)
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Abstract

Both high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) and high-fat diet (HFD) modulate liver fat accumulation and inflammation, however, there is a lack of data on the potential contribution of carbohydrates and lipids separately. For this reason, the changes in liver fatty acid (FA) composition in male Swiss mice fed with HCD or HFD were compared, at the time points 0 (before starting the diets), and after 7, 14, 28 or 56 days. Activities of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), ∆-6 desaturase (D6D), elongases and de novo lipogenesis (DNL) were estimated. Liver mRNA expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) was evaluated as an additional indicator of the de novo lipogenesis. Myeloperoxidase activity, nitric oxide (NO) production, and mRNA expressions of F4/80, type I collagen, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured as indication of the liver inflammatory state. The HCD group had more intense lipid deposition, particularly of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). This group also showed higher DNL, SCD-1, and D6D activities associated with increased NO concentration, as well as myeloperoxidase activity. Livers from the HFD group showed higher elongase activity, stored more polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and had a lower omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid (n-6/n-3) ratio. In conclusion, liver lipid accumulation, fatty acids (FA) composition and inflammation were modulated by the dietary composition of lipids and carbohydrates. The HCD group had more potent lipogenic and inflammatory effects in comparison with HFD. View Full-Text
Keywords: saturated fatty acids; monounsaturated fatty acids; polyunsaturated fatty acids; n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio; desaturases; elongases; nitric oxide; myeloperoxidase; pro-inflammatory cytokines saturated fatty acids; monounsaturated fatty acids; polyunsaturated fatty acids; n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio; desaturases; elongases; nitric oxide; myeloperoxidase; pro-inflammatory cytokines
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

da Silva-Santi, L.G.; Antunes, M.M.; Caparroz-Assef, S.M.; Carbonera, F.; Masi, L.N.; Curi, R.; Visentainer, J.V.; Bazotte, R.B. Liver Fatty Acid Composition and Inflammation in Mice Fed with High-Carbohydrate Diet or High-Fat Diet. Nutrients 2016, 8, 682.

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