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Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 626; doi:10.3390/nu8100626

A Western Dietary Pattern Increases Prostate Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

1
Department of Chemistry, Biology and Biotechnology, University of Perugia, Perugia 06123, Italy
2
Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia 06123, Italy
3
Department of Economics, University of Perugia, Perugia 06123, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 August 2016 / Revised: 15 September 2016 / Accepted: 21 September 2016 / Published: 12 October 2016
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Abstract

Dietary patterns were recently applied to examine the relationship between eating habits and prostate cancer (PC) risk. While the associations between PC risk with the glycemic index and Mediterranean score have been reviewed, no meta-analysis is currently available on dietary patterns defined by “a posteriori” methods. A literature search was carried out (PubMed, Web of Science) to identify studies reporting the relationship between dietary patterns and PC risk. Relevant dietary patterns were selected and the risks estimated were calculated by a random-effect model. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs), for a first-percentile increase in dietary pattern score, were combined by a dose-response meta-analysis. Twelve observational studies were included in the meta-analysis which identified a “Healthy pattern” and a “Western pattern”. The Healthy pattern was not related to PC risk (OR = 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88–1.04) while the Western pattern significantly increased it (OR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.08–1.65). In addition, the “Carbohydrate pattern”, which was analyzed in four articles, was positively associated with a higher PC risk (OR = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.35–2.00). A significant linear trend between the Western (p = 0.011) pattern, the Carbohydrate (p = 0.005) pattern, and the increment of PC risk was observed. The small number of studies included in the meta-analysis suggests that further investigation is necessary to support these findings. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary pattern; prostate cancer; systematic review; meta-analysis dietary pattern; prostate cancer; systematic review; meta-analysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fabiani, R.; Minelli, L.; Bertarelli, G.; Bacci, S. A Western Dietary Pattern Increases Prostate Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2016, 8, 626.

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