Next Article in Journal
Characteristics of Beverage Consumption Habits among a Large Sample of French Adults: Associations with Total Water and Energy Intakes
Previous Article in Journal
Dietary Intake of Trans Fatty Acids in Children Aged 4–5 in Spain: The INMA Cohort Study
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 624; doi:10.3390/nu8100624

The Association between Dietary Vitamin A and Carotenes and the Risk of Primary Liver Cancer: A Case–Control Study

1
Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, Guangdong, China
2
Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou 510080, Guangdong, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 August 2016 / Revised: 20 September 2016 / Accepted: 6 October 2016 / Published: 11 October 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [546 KB, uploaded 11 October 2016]   |  

Abstract

Dietary intake of vitamin A (VA) and carotenes has shown beneficial effects for decreasing the risk of some types of cancer, but findings on the risk of primary liver cancer (PLC) are inconsistent. This case–control study explored the associations between the dietary intake of VA and carotenes and the risk of PLC. We recruited 644 incident PLC patients (diagnosed within one month of each other) and 644 age- and gender-matched controls in Guangzhou, China. A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess habitual dietary intake. Logistic regression analyses found that higher intakes of VA and carotenes were independently associated with decreased PLC risk (all P-trend < 0.001). The multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CI) of PLC for the highest (vs. lowest) quartile were 0.34 (0.24–0.48) for vitamin A and 0.35 (0.25–0.49) for carotenes. The associations were not significantly modified by smoking, alcohol, or tea drinking (P-interactions: 0.062–0.912). Dose–response analysis showed a U-shaped VA–PLC relationship, with sharply decreased risks at the intakes of about 1000 μg retinol equivalent (RE)/day, and then slowly went down toward the flat-bottomed risks with the lowest risk at 2300 μg RE/day. Our findings suggest that greater intake of retinol, carotenes, and total VA may decrease PLC risk among the Chinese population at an intake of 1000 μg RE/day or greater from food sources. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin A; carotenes; primary liver cancer vitamin A; carotenes; primary liver cancer
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lan, Q.-Y.; Zhang, Y.-J.; Liao, G.-C.; Zhou, R.-F.; Zhou, Z.-G.; Chen, Y.-M.; Zhu, H.-L. The Association between Dietary Vitamin A and Carotenes and the Risk of Primary Liver Cancer: A Case–Control Study. Nutrients 2016, 8, 624.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top