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Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 625; doi:10.3390/nu8100625

Dietary Intake of Trans Fatty Acids in Children Aged 4–5 in Spain: The INMA Cohort Study

1
Unit of Nutritional Epidemiology, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Alicante 03550, Spain
2
CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid 28029, Spain
3
Department of Medicine, University of Oviedo, Oviedo 33006, Spain
4
BIODONOSTIA, Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria, San Sebastián 20014, Spain
5
Subdirección Salud Publica Gipuzkoa, San Sebastián 20013, Spain
6
Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria de Palma (IdISPa), Hospital Universitario Son Espases, Palma de Mallorca 07120, Spain
7
CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Madrid 28029, Spain
8
ISGlobal, Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona 08036, Spain
9
Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona 08003, Spain
10
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry/Psychology, Erasmus University Medical Centre-Sophia Children’s Hospital, Rotterdam 3000CD, The Netherlands
11
Epidemiology and Environmental Health Joint Research Unit, FISABIO–Universitat Jaume I–Universitat de València, Valencia 46020, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 July 2016 / Revised: 20 September 2016 / Accepted: 29 September 2016 / Published: 10 October 2016
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Abstract

Trans fatty acid (TFA) intake has been identified as a health hazard in adults, but data on preschool children are scarce. We analyzed the data from the Spanish INMA Project to determine the intake of total, industrial and natural TFA, their main sources and the associated socio-demographic and lifestyle factors in children aged 4–5 (n = 1793). TFA intake was estimated using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire, and multiple linear regression was used to explore associated factors. The mean daily intakes of total, industrial and natural TFA were 1.36, 0.60, and 0.71 g/day, respectively. Ten percent of the children obtained >1% of their energy intake from TFA. The main sources of industrial TFA were fast food, white bread and processed baked goods. Milk, red and processed meat and processed baked goods were the main sources of natural TFA. Having parents from countries other than Spain was significantly associated with higher natural TFA (in mg/day) intake (β 45.5) and television viewing was significantly associated with higher industrial TFA intake (β 18.3). Higher fruits and vegetables intake was significantly associated with lower intakes of all TFAs, whereas higher sweetened beverages intake was significantly associated with lower total and natural TFA intake. Thus, total and industrial TFA intake was associated with less healthy food patterns and lifestyles in Spanish preschool children. View Full-Text
Keywords: trans fatty acids; dietary fats; risk factors; preschool child trans fatty acids; dietary fats; risk factors; preschool child
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Scholz, A.; Gimenez-Monzo, D.; Navarrete-Muñoz, E.M.; Garcia-de-la-Hera, M.; Fernandez-Somoano, A.; Tardon, A.; Santa Marina, L.; Irazabal, A.; Romaguera, D.; Guxens, M.; Julvez, J.; Llop, S.; Lopez-Espinosa, M.-J.; Vioque, J. Dietary Intake of Trans Fatty Acids in Children Aged 4–5 in Spain: The INMA Cohort Study. Nutrients 2016, 8, 625.

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