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Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 617; doi:10.3390/nu8100617

Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

1
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, 469 Wilson Road, Trout FSHN Building, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
2
Department of Nutrition & Dietetics, University of North Dakota, 221 Centennial Dr, Stop 8237, Grand Forks, ND 58202-8237, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 August 2016 / Accepted: 27 September 2016 / Published: 4 October 2016
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Abstract

Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings from this cross-sectional analysis may provide insight into strategies for promoting adequate water intake among Koreans. View Full-Text
Keywords: water intake; beverage consumption; energy intake; eating behavior; Korean adults water intake; beverage consumption; energy intake; eating behavior; Korean adults
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, K.W.; Shin, D.; Song, W.O. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults. Nutrients 2016, 8, 617.

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