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Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 600; doi:10.3390/nu8100600

Immune-Enhancing Effects of a High Molecular Weight Fraction of Cynanchum wilfordii Hemsley in Macrophages and Immunosuppressed Mice

1
Traditional Food Research Center, Korea Food Research Institute, Seongnam 13539, Gyeonggi, Korea
2
Department of Oriental Medicinal Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Gyeonggi, Korea
3
Department of Herbal Crop Research, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, RDA, Eumseong 27709, Chungbuk, Korea
4
Herbal Crop Utilization Research Team, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, RDA, Eumseong 27709, Chungbuk, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 July 2016 / Revised: 9 September 2016 / Accepted: 13 September 2016 / Published: 27 September 2016
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Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate the immune-enhancing activity of a high molecular weight fraction (HMF) of Cynanchum wilfordii in RAW 264.7 macrophages and the cyclophosphamide (CYC)-induced mouse model of immunosuppression. To identify the bioactive substances of HMF, a crude polysaccharide (HMFO) was obtained and treated with sodium periodate (an oxidation agent) or digested with protease. In macrophages, HMF treatment enhanced the production of nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and interleukin 1β (IL-1β)), as well as phagocytic ability. In CYC-immunosuppressed mice, HMF improved relative spleen and thymus weights, natural killer (NK) cell activity, and splenic lymphocyte proliferation. These increases in NO and cytokines were mediated by up-regulation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Periodate treatment, but not protease treatment, decreased the immune-enhancing activity of HMFO, suggesting that polysaccharides are the active ingredients in C. wilfordii extract. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cynanchum wilfordii; polysaccharide; immunostimulatory activity; cytokine; nitric oxide; cyclophosphamide Cynanchum wilfordii; polysaccharide; immunostimulatory activity; cytokine; nitric oxide; cyclophosphamide
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jang, M.; Lim, T.-G.; Ahn, S.; Hong, H.-D.; Rhee, Y.K.; Kim, K.-T.; Lee, E.; Lee, J.H.; Lee, Y.J.; Jung, C.S.; Lee, D.Y.; Cho, C.-W. Immune-Enhancing Effects of a High Molecular Weight Fraction of Cynanchum wilfordii Hemsley in Macrophages and Immunosuppressed Mice. Nutrients 2016, 8, 600.

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