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Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6780-6796; doi:10.3390/nu7085308

Prevalence and Correlates of Vitamin D Deficiency and Insufficiency in Luxembourg Adults: Evidence from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors (ORISCAV-LUX) Study

1
Luxembourg Institute of Health (LIH) (formerly the Centre de Recherche Public Santé), Centre d'Etudes en Santé, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg, L-1445 Strassen, Luxembourg
2
Department of Clinical Biology, Centre Hospitalier du Luxembourg, L-1210 Luxembourg, Luxembourg
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 June 2015 / Revised: 23 July 2015 / Accepted: 23 July 2015 / Published: 13 August 2015
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Abstract

Evidence on vitamin D status and related risk factors in Luxembourg adults is lacking. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency and related risk factors among healthy adults in Luxembourg. Based on clinicians’ observations, it was hypothesized that vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency might be common in our population, constituting a significant public health concern. A nationally representative random sample of 1432 adults was enrolled in the ORISCAV-LUX study, 2007–2008. The participants were divided into four categories according to their serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. Descriptive, univariate and multivariate statistical analyses used weighted methods to account for the stratified sampling scheme. Only 17.1% of the population had a “desirable” serum 25(OH)D level ≥75 nmol/L, whereas 27.1% had “inadequate” [serum 25(OH)D level 50–74 nmol/L], 40.4% had “insufficient” [serum 25(OH)D level 25–49 nmol/L], and 15.5% had “deficient” [serum 25(OH)D level <25 nmol/L)]. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was greater among current smokers, obese subjects, those having reduced HDL-cholesterol level and fair/poor self-perception of health, compared to their counterparts. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was additionally higher among nondrinkers of alcohol, Portuguese and subjects from non-European countries. The final multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that smoking status and obesity were independent correlates of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency, respectively. Inadequate vitamin D status is highly prevalent among adults in Luxembourg and is associated with specific lifestyle factors. Along with the effect of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency on the risk of several diseases, cancer and mortality, our findings have practical implications for public health dietary recommendations, and of particular importance for healthcare practitioners and policy makers. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D deficiency; cross-sectional; population-based study vitamin D deficiency; cross-sectional; population-based study
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Alkerwi, A.; Sauvageot, N.; Gilson, G.; Stranges, S. Prevalence and Correlates of Vitamin D Deficiency and Insufficiency in Luxembourg Adults: Evidence from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors (ORISCAV-LUX) Study. Nutrients 2015, 7, 6780-6796.

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