Next Article in Journal
The Relationship between Dietary Patterns and Metabolic Health in a Representative Sample of Adult Australians
Next Article in Special Issue
Regulation of Dendritic Cell Function by Vitamin D
Previous Article in Journal
Ferulic Acid Alleviates Changes in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome Induced by High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Diet
Previous Article in Special Issue
Immune Modulation by Vitamin D and Its Relevance to Food Allergy
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6465-6490; doi:10.3390/nu7085293

Vitamin D and Inflammatory Cytokines in Healthy and Preeclamptic Pregnancies

Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan, México D.F. 14000, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 April 2015 / Revised: 28 April 2015 / Accepted: 29 July 2015 / Published: 4 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Regulation by Vitamin D)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [737 KB, uploaded 4 August 2015]   |  

Abstract

Preeclampsia is a pregnancy disease characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. Among several disorders, the imbalance of inflammatory cytokines and the alteration of vitamin D metabolism have been reported in preeclampsia. The effects of calcitriol upon inflammatory cytokines has been demonstrated. In healthy pregnant women there is a shift toward a Th2 cytokine profile, which is necessary for an adequate pregnancy outcome. As compared with normal pregnancy, high pro-inflammatory and low anti-inflammatory cytokine levels have been observed in preeclamptic women. Preeclampsia has been associated with low calcitriol levels and vitamin D deficiency is correlated with a higher risk of the development of this disease. It has been demonstrated that placenta is a source as well as the target of calcitriol and cytokines and placental dysfunction has been associated with preeclampsia. Therefore, the present manuscript includes a review about serum calcitriol levels in non-pregnant, pregnant, and preeclamptic women as well as a review on the fetoplacental vitamin D metabolism in healthy and preeclamptic pregnancies. In addition, circulating and fetoplacental inflammatory cytokines in healthy and preeclamptic pregnancies are reviewed. Finally, the effects of calcitriol upon placental pro-inflammatory cytokines are also explored. In conclusion, maternal and placental calcitriol levels are low in preeclampsia which may explain, at least in part, high pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in this disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; inflammatory cytokines; pregnancy; preeclampsia vitamin D; inflammatory cytokines; pregnancy; preeclampsia
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Barrera, D.; Díaz, L.; Noyola-Martínez, N.; Halhali, A. Vitamin D and Inflammatory Cytokines in Healthy and Preeclamptic Pregnancies. Nutrients 2015, 7, 6465-6490.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top