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Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 5088-5097; doi:10.3390/nu7075088

Are You Sure? Confidence about the Satiating Capacity of a Food Affects Subsequent Food Intake

1
Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala SE-751 24, Sweden
2
Nutrition and Behaviour Unit, School of Experimental Psychology, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TU, UK
3
Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics Uppsala University, Uppsala SE-751 24, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 March 2015 / Revised: 10 June 2015 / Accepted: 15 June 2015 / Published: 24 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [613 KB, uploaded 24 June 2015]   |  

Abstract

Expectations about a food’s satiating capacity predict self-selected portion size, food intake and food choice. However, two individuals might have a similar expectation, but one might be extremely confident while the other might be guessing. It is unclear whether confidence about an expectation affects adjustments in energy intake at a subsequent meal. In a randomized cross-over design, 24 subjects participated in three separate breakfast sessions, and were served a low-energy-dense preload (53 kcal/100 g), a high-energy-dense preload (94 kcal/100 g), or no preload. Subjects received ambiguous information about the preload’s satiating capacity and rated how confident they were about their expected satiation before consuming the preload in its entirety. They were served an ad libitum test meal 30 min later. Confidence ratings were negatively associated with energy compensation after consuming the high-energy-dense preload (r = −0.61; p = 0.001). The same relationship was evident after consuming the low-energy-dense preload, but only after controlling for dietary restraint, hunger prior to, and liking of the test meal (p = 0.03). Our results suggest that confidence modifies short-term controls of food intake by affecting energy compensation. These results merit consideration because imprecise caloric compensation has been identified as a potential risk factor for a positive energy balance and weight gain. View Full-Text
Keywords: satiety; satiation; expectations; compensation; overconsumption; expected satiation; confidence; energy density satiety; satiation; expectations; compensation; overconsumption; expected satiation; confidence; energy density
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Schiöth, H.B.; Ferriday, D.; Davies, S.R.; Benedict, C.; Elmståhl, H.; Brunstrom, J.M.; Hogenkamp, P.S. Are You Sure? Confidence about the Satiating Capacity of a Food Affects Subsequent Food Intake. Nutrients 2015, 7, 5088-5097.

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