Fructose:Glucose Ratios—A Study of Sugar Self-Administration and Associated Neural and Physiological Responses in the Rat
AbstractThis study explored whether different ratios of fructose (F) and glucose (G) in sugar can engender significant differences in self-administration and associated neurobiological and physiological responses in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In Experiment 1, animals self-administered pellets containing 55% F + 45% G or 30% F + 70% G, and Fos immunoreactivity was assessed in hypothalamic regions regulating food intake and reward. In Experiment 2, rats self-administered solutions of 55% F + 42% G (high fructose corn syrup (HFCS)), 50% F + 50% G (sucrose) or saccharin, and mRNA of the dopamine 2 (D2R) and mu-opioid (MOR) receptor genes were assessed in striatal regions involved in addictive behaviors. Finally, in Experiment 3, rats self-administered HFCS and sucrose in their home cages, and hepatic fatty acids were quantified. It was found that higher fructose ratios engendered lower self-administration, lower Fos expression in the lateral hypothalamus/arcuate nucleus, reduced D2R and increased MOR mRNA in the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens core, respectively, as well as elevated omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the liver. These data indicate that a higher ratio of fructose may enhance the reinforcing effects of sugar and possibly lead to neurobiological and physiological alterations associated with addictive and metabolic disorders. View Full-Text
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Levy, A.; Marshall, P.; Zhou, Y.; Kreek, M.J.; Kent, K.; Daniels, S.; Shore, A.; Downs, T.; Fernandes, M.F.; Mutch, D.M.; Leri, F. Fructose:Glucose Ratios—A Study of Sugar Self-Administration and Associated Neural and Physiological Responses in the Rat. Nutrients 2015, 7, 3869-3890.
Levy A, Marshall P, Zhou Y, Kreek MJ, Kent K, Daniels S, Shore A, Downs T, Fernandes MF, Mutch DM, Leri F. Fructose:Glucose Ratios—A Study of Sugar Self-Administration and Associated Neural and Physiological Responses in the Rat. Nutrients. 2015; 7(5):3869-3890.Chicago/Turabian Style
Levy, AnneMarie; Marshall, Paul; Zhou, Yan; Kreek, Mary J.; Kent, Katrina; Daniels, Stephen; Shore, Ari; Downs, Tiana; Fernandes, Maria F.; Mutch, David M.; Leri, Francesco. 2015. "Fructose:Glucose Ratios—A Study of Sugar Self-Administration and Associated Neural and Physiological Responses in the Rat." Nutrients 7, no. 5: 3869-3890.