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Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 1716-1727; doi:10.3390/nu7031716

Vitamin A Intake, Serum Vitamin D and Bone Mineral Density: Analysis of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008–2011)

1
Department of Family Practice and Community Health, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 443-781, Korea
2
Division of Food and Bioscience, College of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Konkuk University, Chungju-si, Chungcheonbuk-do 380-701, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 December 2014 / Revised: 26 February 2015 / Accepted: 27 February 2015 / Published: 10 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Bone Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [398 KB, uploaded 10 March 2015]   |  

Abstract

The association of high vitamin A intake and low bone mineral density (BMD) is still controversial. To determine the association of dietary vitamin A intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration with BMD, a total of 6481 subjects (2907 men and 3574 women) aged ≥50 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2011) were divided into groups according to dietary vitamin A intake (tertiles) and serum 25(OH)D (<50, 50–75, >75 nmol/L), and evaluated for BMD after adjusting for relevant variables. Mean dietary vitamin A intakes were 737 and 600 μg RE (Retinol Equivalents) in men and women, respectively. Total hip and femoral neck BMD in men and lumbar spine BMD in women were both positively correlated with dietary vitamin A intake in subjects with serum 25(OH)D >75 nmol/L. Among men with serum 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L, both the top (mean 1353 μg RE) and bottom (mean 218 μg RE) tertiles of dietary vitamin A intake had lower BMD than the middle group (mean 577 μg RE). In this population, BMD was the highest among men and women with serum 25(OH)D = 50–75 nmol/L and that there were no differences in BMD by vitamin A intake in these vitamin D adequate groups. This cross-sectional study indicates that vitamin A intake does not affect bone mineral density as long as the serum 25(OH)D concentration is maintained in the moderate level of 50–75 nmol/L. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin A; vitamin D; bone mineral density vitamin A; vitamin D; bone mineral density
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Joo, N.-S.; Yang, S.-W.; Song, B.C.; Yeum, K.-J. Vitamin A Intake, Serum Vitamin D and Bone Mineral Density: Analysis of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008–2011). Nutrients 2015, 7, 1716-1727.

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