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Nutrients 2015, 7(2), 1333-1351; doi:10.3390/nu7021333

Rhizoma Dioscoreae Extract Protects against Alveolar Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats via microRNAs Regulation

1
Institute of Basic Theory, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China
2
School of Pharmaceutical Science, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China
3
Functional Genomics and Proteomics Laboratory, Osteoporosis Research Center, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68131, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 January 2015 / Revised: 5 February 2015 / Accepted: 9 February 2015 / Published: 16 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Bone Health)
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteoprotective effect of aqueous Rhizoma Dioscoreae extract (RDE) on the alveolar bone of rats with ovariectomy-induced bone loss. Female Wistar rats underwent either ovariectomy or sham operation (SHAM). The ovariectomized (OVX) rats were treated with vehicle (OVX), estradiol valerate (EV), or RDE. After treatments, the bone mineral density (BMD) and the three-dimensional microarchitecture of the alveolar bone were analyzed to assess bone mass. Microarrays were used to evaluate microRNA expression profiles in alveolar bone from RDE-treated and OVX rats. The differential expression of microRNAs was validated using real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), and the target genes of validated microRNAs were predicted and further analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). The key findings were verified using qRT-PCR. Our results show that RDE inhibits alveolar bone loss in OVX rats. Compared to the OVX rats, the RDE-treated rats showed upregulated expression levels of 8 microRNAs and downregulated expression levels of 8 microRNAs in the alveolar bone in the microarray analysis. qRT-PCR helped validate 13 of 16 differentially expressed microRNAs, and 114 putative target genes of the validated microRNAs were retrieved. The IPA showed that these putative target genes had the potential to code for proteins that were involved in the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)/Smad signaling pathway (Tgfbr2/Bmpr2, Smad3/4/5, and Bcl-2) and interleukin (IL)-6/oncostatin M (OSM)/Jak1/STAT3 signaling pathway (Jak1, STAT3, and Il6r). These experiments revealed that RDE could inhibit ovariectomy-induced alveolar bone loss in rats. The mechanism of this anti-osteopenic effect in alveolar bone may involve the simultaneous inhibition of bone formation and bone resorption, which is associated with modulation of the TGF-β/BMPs/Smad and the IL-6/OSM/Jak1/STAT3 signaling pathways via microRNA regulation. View Full-Text
Keywords: microRNA expression profile; herbal medicine; alveolar bone loss; ovariectomized rats; Rhizoma Dioscoreae microRNA expression profile; herbal medicine; alveolar bone loss; ovariectomized rats; Rhizoma Dioscoreae
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, Z.; Song, C.; Zhang, F.; Xiang, L.; Chen, Y.; Li, Y.; Pan, J.; Liu, H.; Xiao, G.G.; Ju, D. Rhizoma Dioscoreae Extract Protects against Alveolar Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats via microRNAs Regulation. Nutrients 2015, 7, 1333-1351.

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