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Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 1538-1564; doi:10.3390/nu7031538

Emphasizing the Health Benefits of Vitamin D for Those with Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Intellectual Disabilities

1
Sunlight, Nutrition, and Health Research Center, PO Box 641603, San Francisco, CA 94164-1603, USA
2
Department of Medicine & Endocrinology, Cardio Metabolic Institute, Somerset, NJ 08873, USA
3
Department of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, Nutrition, and Diabetes, and the Vitamin D, Skin, and Bone Research Laboratory, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA 02118, USA
4
Vitamin D Council and San Luis Obispo Integrative Medicine, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401, USA
5
Department of Biochemistry, Radioimmunology, and Experimental Medicine, The Children's Memorial Health Institute, 04-730 Warsaw, Poland
6
Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE 68131, USA
7
Global Clinical Advisor-Health Promotion, Special Olympics International and Affiliate Faculty, College of Education and Human Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA
8
International Foundation for Chronic Disabilities, Inc., PO Box 166, Oxford, NJ 07863, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 October 2014 / Revised: 16 January 2015 / Accepted: 5 February 2015 / Published: 27 February 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [243 KB, uploaded 27 February 2015]

Abstract

People with neurodevelopmental disorders and intellectual disabilities have much greater health care needs. Mainly staying indoors, such people generally have low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. The Vitamin D Task Force of the American Academy of Developmental Medicine and Dentistry (AADMD) reviewed the evidence of 25(OH)D concentrations that benefit the health of persons with developmental disabilities. Maintaining recommended optimal serum 25(OH)D concentrations year long will benefit skeletal development in infants, children, and adolescents, and benefit musculoskeletal health and neuromuscular coordination in adult patients, and decrease risk of falls. Maintaining optimal concentrations decreases risks and severities of autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular disease, many types of cancer, dementia, types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus, and respiratory tract infections. Other benefits include improved dental and oral health and improved physical performance. The Task Force recommends that 25(OH)D concentrations for optimal health to be in the range of 75 to 125 nmol/L, which can be achieved using between 800 and 4000 IU/day vitamin D3 and sensible exposure to solar UVB radiation. The paper also discusses the potential risks of higher 25(OH)D concentrations, the evidence from and limitations of randomized controlled trials, and the recommendations by various groups and agencies. View Full-Text
Keywords: autism; bone health; cancer; cardiovascular disease; developmental disabilities; down syndrome; fractures; intellectual disabilities; vitamin D; 25-hydroxyvitamin D autism; bone health; cancer; cardiovascular disease; developmental disabilities; down syndrome; fractures; intellectual disabilities; vitamin D; 25-hydroxyvitamin D
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Grant, W.B.; Wimalawansa, S.J.; Holick, M.F.; Cannell, J.J.; Pludowski, P.; Lappe, J.M.; Pittaway, M.; May, P. Emphasizing the Health Benefits of Vitamin D for Those with Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Intellectual Disabilities. Nutrients 2015, 7, 1538-1564.

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