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Nutrients 2015, 7(2), 999-1020; doi:10.3390/nu7020999

6-Gingerol Protects against Nutritional Steatohepatitis by Regulating Key Genes Related to Inflammation and Lipid Metabolism

Department of Pharmacy & Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, Tajen University, Yanpu Township, 90741 Pingtung County, Taiwan
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Received: 5 October 2014 / Revised: 26 December 2014 / Accepted: 16 January 2015 / Published: 4 February 2015
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Abstract

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), appears to be increasingly common worldwide. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of 6-gingerol ((S)-5-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-decanone), a bioactive ingredient of plants belonging to the Zingiberaceae family, on experimental models of NASH. In HepG2 cells, 6-gingerol (100 μmol/L) treatment inhibited free fatty acids mixture (0.33 mmol/L palmitate and 0.66 mmol/L oleate)-induced triglyceride and inflammatory marker accumulations. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed with a methionine and choline-deficient (MCD) diet to induce steatohepatitis. After four weeks of MCD diet feeding, the mice were dosed orally with 6-gingerol (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg/day) once daily for another four weeks. 6-Gingerol (100 mg/kg/day) attenuated liver steatosis and necro-inflammation in MCD diet-fed mice. The expressions of inflammatory cytokine genes, including those for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6, and nuclear transcription factor (NF-κB), which were increased in the livers of MCD diet-fed mice, were attenuated by 6-gingerol. 6-Gingerol possesses a repressive property on hepatic steatosis, which is associated with induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α. Our study demonstrated the protective role of 6-gingerol in ameliorating nutritional steatohepatitis. The effect was mediated through regulating key genes related to lipid metabolism and inflammation. View Full-Text
Keywords: 6-gingerol; inflammatory cytokine; methionine and choline-deficient (MCD) diet; nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB); steatohepatitis 6-gingerol; inflammatory cytokine; methionine and choline-deficient (MCD) diet; nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB); steatohepatitis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tzeng, T.-F.; Liou, S.-S.; Chang, C.J.; Liu, I.-M. 6-Gingerol Protects against Nutritional Steatohepatitis by Regulating Key Genes Related to Inflammation and Lipid Metabolism. Nutrients 2015, 7, 999-1020.

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