Next Article in Journal
Black Tea Lowers Blood Pressure and Wave Reflections in Fasted and Postprandial Conditions in Hypertensive Patients: A Randomised Study
Previous Article in Journal
6-Gingerol Protects against Nutritional Steatohepatitis by Regulating Key Genes Related to Inflammation and Lipid Metabolism
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2015, 7(2), 1021-1036; doi:10.3390/nu7021021

Ginseng Protects Against Respiratory Syncytial Virus by Modulating Multiple Immune Cells and Inhibiting Viral Replication

1
Center for Inflammation, Immunity & Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
2
National Institute of Biological Resources, Incheon 404–708, Korea
3
Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, 175 Anyangro, Anyangsi, Gyeonggido 430–757, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 January 2015 / Revised: 16 January 2015 / Accepted: 26 January 2015 / Published: 4 February 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [829 KB, uploaded 4 February 2015]   |  

Abstract

Ginseng has been used in humans for thousands of years but its effects on viral infection have not been well understood. We investigated the effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection using in vitro cell culture and in vivo mouse models. RGE partially protected human epithelial (HEp2) cells from RSV-induced cell death and viral replication. In addition, RGE significantly inhibited the production of RSV-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α) in murine dendritic and macrophage-like cells. More importantly, RGE intranasal pre-treatment prevented loss of mouse body weight after RSV infection. RGE treatment improved lung viral clearance and enhanced the production of interferon (IFN-γ) in bronchoalveolar lavage cells upon RSV infection of mice. Analysis of cellular phenotypes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids showed that RGE treatment increased the populations of CD8+ T cells and CD11c+ dendritic cells upon RSV infection of mice. Taken together, these results provide evidence that ginseng has protective effects against RSV infection through multiple mechanisms, which include improving cell survival, partial inhibition of viral replication and modulation of cytokine production and types of immune cells migrating into the lung. View Full-Text
Keywords: ginseng; respiratory syncytial virus; antiviral activity; cytokines; Immuno-modulatory effects ginseng; respiratory syncytial virus; antiviral activity; cytokines; Immuno-modulatory effects
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, J.S.; Lee, Y.-N.; Lee, Y.-T.; Hwang, H.S.; Kim, K.-H.; Ko, E.-J.; Kim, M.-C.; Kang, S.-M. Ginseng Protects Against Respiratory Syncytial Virus by Modulating Multiple Immune Cells and Inhibiting Viral Replication. Nutrients 2015, 7, 1021-1036.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top