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Nutrients 2015, 7(2), 865-886; doi:10.3390/nu7020865

Nutritional Ingredients Modulate Adipokine Secretion and Inflammation in Human Primary Adipocytes

1
Paul Langerhans Group for Integrative Physiology, German Diabetes Center, Auf'm Hennekamp 65, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
2
Global Discovery, Mead Johnson Pediatric Nutrition Institute, Middenkampweg 2, Nijmegen, 6545 CJ, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 November 2014 / Accepted: 16 January 2015 / Published: 26 January 2015
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Abstract

Nutritional factors such as casein hydrolysates and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids have been proposed to exert beneficial metabolic effects. We aimed to investigate how a casein hydrolysate (eCH) and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids could affect human primary adipocyte function in vitro. Incubation conditions with the different nutritional factors were validated by assessing cell vitality with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and neutral red incorporation. Intracellular triglyceride content was assessed with Oil Red O staining. The effect of eCH, a non-peptidic amino acid mixture (AA), and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) on adiponectin and leptin secretion was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Intracellular adiponectin expression and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation were analyzed by Western blot, while monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) release was explored by ELISA. The eCH concentration dependently increased adiponectin secretion in human primary adipocytes through its intrinsic peptide bioactivity, since the non-peptidic mixture, AA, could not mimic eCH’s effects on adiponectin secretion. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and DHA combined with arachidonic acid (ARA) upregulated adiponectin secretion. However, only DHA and DHA/ARA exerted a potentanti-inflammatory effect reflected by prevention of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induced NF-κB activation and MCP-1 secretion in human adipocytes. eCH and DHA alone or in combination with ARA, may hold the key for nutritional programming through their anti-inflammatory action to prevent diseases with low-grade chronic inflammation such as obesity or diabetes. View Full-Text
Keywords: milk proteins; casein hydrolysate; EPA; DHA; ARA; LC-PUFAs; adiponectin; adipocytes milk proteins; casein hydrolysate; EPA; DHA; ARA; LC-PUFAs; adiponectin; adipocytes
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Romacho, T.; Glosse, P.; Richter, I.; Elsen, M.; Schoemaker, M.H.; van Tol, E.A.; Eckel, J. Nutritional Ingredients Modulate Adipokine Secretion and Inflammation in Human Primary Adipocytes. Nutrients 2015, 7, 865-886.

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