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Nutrients 2015, 7(2), 1131-1143; doi:10.3390/nu7021131

Effect of Whey Supplementation on Circulating C-Reactive Protein: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

1
Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Soochow University, 199 Renai Road, Suzhou 215123, China
2
Key Laboratory of Radiation Biology, School of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Soochow University, 199 Renai Road, Suzhou 215123, China
3
Suzhou Health College, 28 Kehua Road, Suzhou 215009, China
4
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Preventive and Translational Medicine for Geriatric Disease, Soochow University, 199 Renai Road, Suzhou 215123, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 October 2014 / Accepted: 2 February 2015 / Published: 9 February 2015
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Abstract

Whey supplementation is beneficial for human health, possibly by reducing the circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) level, a sensitive marker of inflammation. Thus, a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was conducted to evaluate their relationship. A systematic literature search was conducted in July, 2014, to identify eligible studies. Either a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model was used to calculate pooled effects. The meta-analysis results of nine trials showed a slight, but no significant, reduction of 0.42 mg/L (95% CI −0.96, 0.13) in CRP level with the supplementation of whey protein and its derivates. Relatively high heterogeneity across studies was observed. Subgroup analyses showed that whey significantly lowered CRP by 0.72 mg/L (95% CI −0.97, −0.47) among trials with a daily whey dose ≥20 g/day and by 0.67 mg/L (95% CI −1.21, −0.14) among trials with baseline CRP ≥3 mg/L. Meta-regression analysis revealed that the baseline CRP level was a potential effect modifier of whey supplementation in reducing CRP. In conclusion, our meta-analysis did not find sufficient evidence that whey and its derivates elicited a beneficial effect in reducing circulating CRP. However, they may significantly reduce CRP among participants with highly supplemental doses or increased baseline CRP levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: whey protein; C-reactive protein; randomized controlled trial; meta-analysisv whey protein; C-reactive protein; randomized controlled trial; meta-analysisv
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhou, L.-M.; Xu, J.-Y.; Rao, C.-P.; Han, S.; Wan, Z.; Qin, L.-Q. Effect of Whey Supplementation on Circulating C-Reactive Protein: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Nutrients 2015, 7, 1131-1143.

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