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Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 9768-9784; doi:10.3390/nu7125497

Chronic Zinc Deficiency Alters Chick Gut Microbiota Composition and Function

1
USDA-ARS Robert Holley Center for Agriculture and Health, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
2
Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
3
College of Medicine, the University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
4
Faculty of Medicine, Bar-Ilan University, 8 Henrietta Szold St, Safed 1311502, Israel
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 September 2015 / Revised: 10 November 2015 / Accepted: 12 November 2015 / Published: 27 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Zinc and Human Health)
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Abstract

Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a prevalent micronutrient insufficiency. Although the gut is a vital organ for Zn utilization, and Zn deficiency is associated with impaired intestinal permeability and a global decrease in gastrointestinal health, alterations in the gut microbial ecology of the host under conditions of Zn deficiency have yet to be studied. Using the broiler chicken (Gallus gallus) model, the aim of this study was to characterize distinct cecal microbiota shifts induced by chronic dietary Zn depletion. We demonstrate that Zn deficiency induces significant taxonomic alterations and decreases overall species richness and diversity, establishing a microbial profile resembling that of various other pathological states. Through metagenomic analysis, we show that predicted Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways responsible for macro- and micronutrient uptake are significantly depleted under Zn deficiency; along with concomitant decreases in beneficial short chain fatty acids, such depletions may further preclude optimal host Zn availability. We also identify several candidate microbes that may play a significant role in modulating the bioavailability and utilization of dietary Zn during prolonged deficiency. Our results are the first to characterize a unique and dysbiotic cecal microbiota during Zn deficiency, and provide evidence for such microbial perturbations as potential effectors of the Zn deficient phenotype. View Full-Text
Keywords: zinc deficiency; microbiota; dysbiosis; cecal microbiome; zinc biomarker zinc deficiency; microbiota; dysbiosis; cecal microbiome; zinc biomarker
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Reed, S.; Neuman, H.; Moscovich, S.; Glahn, R.P.; Koren, O.; Tako, E. Chronic Zinc Deficiency Alters Chick Gut Microbiota Composition and Function. Nutrients 2015, 7, 9768-9784.

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