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Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10065-10075; doi:10.3390/nu7125512

Anti-Diabetic Effects of Madecassic Acid and Rotundic Acid

1
Department of Biological Science and Technology, China Medical University, Taichung City 40402, Taiwan
2
Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung City 40402, Taiwan
3
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung City 40402, Taiwan
4
Shanghai Research Center for the Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China
5
Department of Pathology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung City 40402, Taiwan
6
Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung City 40402, Taiwan
7
Department of Nutrition, China Medical University, Taichung City 40402, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 November 2015 / Revised: 17 November 2015 / Accepted: 23 November 2015 / Published: 2 December 2015
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Abstract

Anti-diabetic effects of madecassic acid (MEA) and rotundic acid (RA) were examined. MEA or RA at 0.05% or 0.1% was supplied to diabetic mice for six weeks. The intake of MEA, not RA, dose-dependently lowered plasma glucose level and increased plasma insulin level. MEA, not RA, intake dose-dependently reduced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and fibrinogen level; as well as restored antithrombin-III and protein C activities in plasma of diabetic mice. MEA or RA intake decreased triglyceride and cholesterol levels in plasma and liver. Histological data agreed that MEA or RA intake lowered hepatic lipid droplets, determined by ORO stain. MEA intake dose-dependently declined reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidized glutathione levels, increased glutathione content and maintained the activity of glutathione reductase and catalase in the heart and kidneys of diabetic mice. MEA intake dose-dependently reduced interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels in the heart and kidneys of diabetic mice. RA intake at 0.1% declined cardiac and renal levels of these inflammatory factors. These data indicated that MEA improved glycemic control and hemostatic imbalance, lowered lipid accumulation, and attenuated oxidative and inflammatory stress in diabetic mice. Thus, madecassic acid could be considered as an anti-diabetic agent. View Full-Text
Keywords: madecassic acid; rotundic acid; diabetes; coagulation; anti-lipid madecassic acid; rotundic acid; diabetes; coagulation; anti-lipid
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hsu, Y.-M.; Hung, Y.-C.; Hu, L.; Lee, Y.-J.; Yin, M.-C. Anti-Diabetic Effects of Madecassic Acid and Rotundic Acid. Nutrients 2015, 7, 10065-10075.

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