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Correction published on 1 April 2016, see Nutrients 2016, 8(4), 194.

Letter published on 16 June 2016, see Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 372.

Open AccessReview
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10053-10064; doi:10.3390/nu7125513

Copper-2 Ingestion, Plus Increased Meat Eating Leading to Increased Copper Absorption, Are Major Factors Behind the Current Epidemic of Alzheimer’s Disease

Human Genetics, University of Michigan, 3820 Gensley Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48103, USA
Received: 20 June 2015 / Revised: 24 July 2015 / Accepted: 27 October 2015 / Published: 2 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Cognitive Function)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [197 KB, uploaded 1 April 2016]

Abstract

It has become clear that copper toxicity is playing a major role in Alzheimer’s disease; but why is the brain copper toxicity with cognition loss in Alzheimer’s disease so much different clinically than brain copper toxicity in Wilson’s disease, which results in a movement disorder? Furthermore, why is the inorganic copper of supplement pills and in drinking water so much more damaging to cognition than the organic copper in food? A recent paper, which shows that almost all food copper is copper-1, that is the copper-2 of foods reverts to the reduced copper-1 form at death or harvest, gives new insight into these questions. The body has an intestinal transport system for copper-1, Ctr1, which channels copper-1 through the liver and into safe channels. Ctr1 cannot absorb copper-2, and some copper-2 bypasses the liver, ends up in the blood quickly, and is toxic to cognition. Humans evolved to handle copper-1 safely, but not copper-2. Alzheimer’s is at least in part, a copper-2 toxicity disease, while Wilson’s is a general copper overload disease. In this review, we will show that the epidemiology of the Alzheimer’s epidemic occurring in developed, but not undeveloped countries, fits with the epidemiology of exposure to copper-2 ingestion leached from copper plumbing and from copper supplement pill ingestion. Increased meat eating in developed countries is also a factor, because it increases copper absorption, and thus over all copper exposure. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; copper-2; copper plumbing; copper supplement pills; Alzheimer’s disease epidemiology Alzheimer’s disease; copper-2; copper plumbing; copper supplement pills; Alzheimer’s disease epidemiology
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Brewer, G.J. Copper-2 Ingestion, Plus Increased Meat Eating Leading to Increased Copper Absorption, Are Major Factors Behind the Current Epidemic of Alzheimer’s Disease. Nutrients 2015, 7, 10053-10064.

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