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Nutrients 2015, 7(11), 9383-9399; doi:10.3390/nu7115476

A Priori and a Posteriori Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy and Gestational Weight Gain: The Generation R Study

1
Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands
2
The Generation R Study Group, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands
3
Department of Biostatistics, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands
4
Department of Pediatrics, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands
5
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands
6
Department of Global Public Health, Leiden University College the Hague, P.O. Box 13228, 2501 EE the Hague, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 August 2015 / Revised: 29 October 2015 / Accepted: 4 November 2015 / Published: 12 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Pattern and Health)
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Abstract

Abnormal gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We examined whether dietary patterns are associated with GWG. Participants included 3374 pregnant women from a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Dietary intake during pregnancy was assessed with food-frequency questionnaires. Three a posteriori-derived dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis: a “Vegetable, oil and fish”, a “Nuts, high-fiber cereals and soy”, and a “Margarine, sugar and snacks” pattern. The a priori-defined dietary pattern was based on national dietary recommendations. Weight was repeatedly measured around 13, 20 and 30 weeks of pregnancy; pre-pregnancy and maximum weight were self-reported. Normal weight women with high adherence to the “Vegetable, oil and fish” pattern had higher early-pregnancy GWG than those with low adherence (43 g/week (95% CI 16; 69) for highest vs. lowest quartile (Q)). Adherence to the “Margarine, sugar and snacks” pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of excessive GWG (OR 1.45 (95% CI 1.06; 1.99) Q4 vs. Q1). Normal weight women with higher scores on the “Nuts, high-fiber cereals and soy” pattern had more moderate GWG than women with lower scores (−0.01 (95% CI −0.02; −0.00) per SD). The a priori-defined pattern was not associated with GWG. To conclude, specific dietary patterns may play a role in early pregnancy but are not consistently associated with GWG. View Full-Text
Keywords: pregnancy; gestational weight gain; dietary pattern; maternal diet; cohort pregnancy; gestational weight gain; dietary pattern; maternal diet; cohort
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tielemans, M.J.; Erler, N.S.; Leermakers, E.T.M.; van den Broek, M.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Kiefte-de Jong, J.C.; Franco, O.H. A Priori and a Posteriori Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy and Gestational Weight Gain: The Generation R Study. Nutrients 2015, 7, 9383-9399.

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