Next Article in Journal
Synergistic Effects of Human Milk Nutrients in the Support of Infant Recognition Memory: An Observational Study
Previous Article in Journal
Examining Means of Reaching Adolescent Girls for Iron Supplementation in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2015, 7(11), 9046-9078; doi:10.3390/nu7115447

Fermentation of Green Tea with 2% Aquilariae lignum Increases the Anti-Diabetic Activity of Green Tea Aqueous Extracts in the High Fat-Fed Mouse

1
The Medical Research Center for Globalization of Herbal Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-Do 38610, Korea
2
Department of Histology and Anatomy, College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, 1, Hannydaero, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-Do 38610, Korea
3
Department of Preventive medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, 1, Hannydaero, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-Do 38610, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 August 2015 / Revised: 18 September 2015 / Accepted: 23 October 2015 / Published: 3 November 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5367 KB, uploaded 3 November 2015]   |  

Abstract

Anti-diabetic effects on the metabolomic differences between green tea (GT) and Aquilariae lignum-fermented green tea (fGT) were investigated in the high fat-fed mouse. To prove the differences, hypoglycemic (blood glucose, insulin and glycated hemoglobin levels, pancreas weights and histopathological-immunohistochemistrical analysis of pancreas–insulin/glucagon cells), hepato- and nephron-protective (the changes in liver and kidney weight, histopathology of liver and kidney, serum aminotransferases (AST and ALT) levels, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine levels), and hypolipidemic (the changes of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low- and high-density lipoprotein levels with fecal total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents) effects were evaluated. In addition, liver lipid peroxidation, the glutathione contents, and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were measured according to the hepatic glucose-regulating enzyme activities of glucokinase (GK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) for action mechanisms. As a result, fGT showed a stronger hypoglycemic, hepato- and nephron-protective, hypolipidemic, and anti-oxidant effect than GT in high fat-fed mice. In addition, fGT-treated mice exerted more favorable inhibitory activities against GK, G6pase, PERCK activities as compared to GT-treated mice. Taken together, fGT fermented with Aquilariae lignum, 1:49 (2%; g/g) has a stronger effect compared with GT. Therefore, fGT has the potential to increase bioactivity against type 2 diabetics. View Full-Text
Keywords: high fat diet; mouse; obese; diabetes; Aquilariae lignum; fermented green tea; metformin; simvastatin; hepatic glucose-regulating enzyme high fat diet; mouse; obese; diabetes; Aquilariae lignum; fermented green tea; metformin; simvastatin; hepatic glucose-regulating enzyme
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, J.E.; Kang, S.J.; Choi, S.H.; Song, C.H.; Lee, Y.J.; Ku, S.K. Fermentation of Green Tea with 2% Aquilariae lignum Increases the Anti-Diabetic Activity of Green Tea Aqueous Extracts in the High Fat-Fed Mouse. Nutrients 2015, 7, 9046-9078.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top