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Nutrients 2015, 7(11), 9127-9138; doi:10.3390/nu7115454

Nutritional Modulation of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Insulin Resistance

Department of Medicine, University of Helsinki, and Minerva Foundation Institute for Medical Research, Haartmaninkatu 8, 00290 Helsinki, Finland
Received: 17 August 2015 / Revised: 7 October 2015 / Accepted: 9 October 2015 / Published: 5 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipoprotein Metabolism and Atherosclerosis)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1048 KB, uploaded 5 November 2015]   |  

Abstract

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) covers a spectrum of disorders ranging from simple steatosis (non-alcoholic fatty liver, NAFL) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. NAFL increases the risk of liver fibrosis. If the liver is fatty due to causes of insulin resistance such as obesity and physical inactivity, it overproduces glucose and triglycerides leading to hyperinsulinemia and a low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration. The latter features predispose to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Understanding the impact of nutritional modulation of liver fat content and insulin resistance is therefore of interest for prevention and treatment of NAFLD. Hypocaloric, especially low carbohydrate ketogenic diets rapidly decrease liver fat content and associated metabolic abnormalities. However, any type of caloric restriction seems effective long-term. Isocaloric diets containing 16%–23% fat and 57%–65% carbohydrate lower liver fat compared to diets with 43%–55% fat and 27%–38% carbohydrate. Diets rich in saturated (SFA) as compared to monounsaturated (MUFA) or polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids appear particularly harmful as they increase both liver fat and insulin resistance. Overfeeding either saturated fat or carbohydrate increases liver fat content. Vitamin E supplementation decreases liver fat content as well as fibrosis but has no effect on features of insulin resistance. View Full-Text
Keywords: saturated fat; carbohydrate; fructose; liver fat; steatosis. saturated fat; carbohydrate; fructose; liver fat; steatosis.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Yki-Järvinen, H. Nutritional Modulation of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Insulin Resistance. Nutrients 2015, 7, 9127-9138.

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