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Nutrients 2014, 6(7), 2650-2667; doi:10.3390/nu6072650

Egg Intake during Carbohydrate Restriction Alters Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Inflammation and Cholesterol Homeostasis in Metabolic Syndrome

1
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
2
Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68683, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 April 2014 / Revised: 2 July 2014 / Accepted: 8 July 2014 / Published: 18 July 2014
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Abstract

Egg yolk contains bioactive components that improve plasma inflammatory markers and HDL profiles in metabolic syndrome (MetS) under carbohydrate restriction. We further sought to determine whether egg yolk intake affects peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) inflammation and cholesterol homeostasis in MetS, as HDL and its associated lipid transporter ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) reduce the inflammatory potential of leukocytes through modulation of cellular cholesterol content and distribution. Thirty-seven men and women classified with MetS consumed a moderate carbohydrate-restricted diet (25%–30% of energy) for 12 weeks, in addition to consuming either three whole eggs per day (EGG) or the equivalent amount of yolk-free egg substitute (SUB). Interestingly, lipopolysaccharide-induced PBMC IL-1β and TNFα secretion increased from baseline to week 12 in the SUB group only, despite increases in PBMC toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA expression in the EGG group. Compared to baseline, ABCA1 and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase mRNA expression increased by week 12 in the EGG group only, whereas changes in PBMC total cholesterol positively correlated with changes in lipid raft content. Together, these findings suggest that intake of whole eggs during carbohydrate restriction alters PBMC inflammation and cholesterol homeostasis in MetS. View Full-Text
Keywords: inflammation; cholesterol; peripheral blood mononuclear cells; ABCA1; eggs; metabolic syndrome inflammation; cholesterol; peripheral blood mononuclear cells; ABCA1; eggs; metabolic syndrome
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Andersen, C.J.; Lee, J.-Y.; Blesso, C.N.; Carr, T.P.; Fernandez, M.L. Egg Intake during Carbohydrate Restriction Alters Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Inflammation and Cholesterol Homeostasis in Metabolic Syndrome. Nutrients 2014, 6, 2650-2667.

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