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Nutrients 2014, 6(6), 2290-2304; doi:10.3390/nu6062290

The Role of FADS1/2 Polymorphisms on Cardiometabolic Markers and Fatty Acid Profiles in Young Adults Consuming Fish Oil Supplements

Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G2W1, Canada
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Received: 11 April 2014 / Revised: 21 May 2014 / Accepted: 30 May 2014 / Published: 16 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient: Gene Interactions)
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Abstract

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) known to influence cardiometabolic markers of health. Evidence suggests that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase 1 and 2 (FADS1/2) gene cluster may influence an individual’s response to n-3 FAs. This study examined the impact of a moderate daily dose of EPA and DHA fish oil supplements on cardiometabolic markers, FA levels in serum and red blood cells (RBC), and whether these endpoints were influenced by SNPs in FADS1/2. Young adults consumed fish oil supplements (1.8 g total EPA/DHA per day) for 12 weeks followed by an 8-week washout period. Serum and RBC FA profiles were analyzed every two weeks by gas chromatography. Two SNPs were genotyped: rs174537 in FADS1 and rs174576 in FADS2. Participants had significantly reduced levels of blood triglycerides (−13%) and glucose (–11%) by week 12; however, these benefits were lost during the washout period. EPA and DHA levels increased significantly in serum (+250% and +51%, respectively) and RBCs (+132% and +18%, respectively) within the first two weeks of supplementation and remained elevated throughout the 12-week period. EPA and DHA levels in RBCs only (not serum) remained significantly elevated (+37% and +24%, respectively) after the washout period. Minor allele carriers for both SNPs experienced greater increases in RBC EPA levels during supplementation; suggesting that genetic variation at this locus can influence an individual’s response to fish oil supplements. View Full-Text
Keywords: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids; single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); fatty acid desaturase 1 and 2 (FADS1/2); serum; red blood cells (RBC); triglycerides (TAG); glucose eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids; single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); fatty acid desaturase 1 and 2 (FADS1/2); serum; red blood cells (RBC); triglycerides (TAG); glucose
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Roke, K.; Mutch, D.M. The Role of FADS1/2 Polymorphisms on Cardiometabolic Markers and Fatty Acid Profiles in Young Adults Consuming Fish Oil Supplements. Nutrients 2014, 6, 2290-2304.

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