Next Article in Journal
Estimated Levels of Gluten Incidentally Present in a Canadian Gluten-Free Diet
Previous Article in Journal
Montmorency Cherries Reduce the Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Responses to Repeated Days High-Intensity Stochastic Cycling
Previous Article in Special Issue
High-Caloric and Chocolate Stimuli Processing in Healthy Humans: An Integration of Functional Imaging and Electrophysiological Findings
Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 844-880; doi:10.3390/nu6020844
Review

Cocoa Polyphenols and Inflammatory Markers of Cardiovascular Disease

1,2,†
, 2,†,* , 2
, 2,3
, 2
, 4
, 2
, 2
 and 2
1 Biomarkers Research Program, Biochemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, King Abdullah road, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia 2 Biomarkers and Nutritional & Food Metabolomics Research Group, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, XaRTA, INSA, Campus Torribera,INGENIO-CONSOLIDER Program, Fun-C-Food CSD2007-063, Ministry of Science and Innovation, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Barcelona, Av Joan XXIII, s/n, Barcelona 08028, Spain 3 Biomedical Research Institute (IBIMA), Service of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Complex (Virgen de la Victoria), Campus de Teatinos s/n, University of Málaga, Malaga 29010, Spain 4 Institute of Food Science Research (CIAL), CSIC-UAM. C/Nicolás Cabrera 9, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049, Spain These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 November 2013 / Revised: 30 December 2013 / Accepted: 6 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chocolate and Cocoa in Human Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [515 KB, uploaded 21 February 2014]   |   Browse Figure

Abstract

Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of plant-derived food intake in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The potential bioactivity of cocoa and its polyphenolic components in modulating cardiovascular health is now being studied worldwide and continues to grow at a rapid pace. In fact, the high polyphenol content of cocoa is of particular interest from the nutritional and pharmacological viewpoints. Cocoa polyphenols are shown to possess a range of cardiovascular-protective properties, and can play a meaningful role through modulating different inflammatory markers involved in atherosclerosis. Accumulated evidence on related anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa polyphenols is summarized in the present review.
Keywords: cocoa polyphenols; bioavailability; inflammation; CVD cocoa polyphenols; bioavailability; inflammation; CVD
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Khan, N.; Khymenets, O.; Urpí-Sardà, M.; Tulipani, S.; Garcia-Aloy, M.; Monagas, M.; Mora-Cubillos, X.; Llorach, R.; Andres-Lacueva, C. Cocoa Polyphenols and Inflammatory Markers of Cardiovascular Disease. Nutrients 2014, 6, 844-880.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Comments

Citing Articles

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert