Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 729-775; doi:10.3390/nu6020729
Special Report

Vitamin D Deficiency in India: Prevalence, Causalities and Interventions

1 and 1,2,* email
Received: 16 November 2013; in revised form: 28 January 2014 / Accepted: 28 January 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Vitamin D deficiency prevails in epidemic proportions all over the Indian subcontinent, with a prevalence of 70%–100% in the general population. In India, widely consumed food items such as dairy products are rarely fortified with vitamin D. Indian socioreligious and cultural practices do not facilitate adequate sun exposure, thereby negating potential benefits of plentiful sunshine. Consequently, subclinical vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in both urban and rural settings, and across all socioeconomic and geographic strata. Vitamin D deficiency is likely to play an important role in the very high prevalence of rickets, osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer and infections such as tuberculosis in India. Fortification of staple foods with vitamin D is the most viable population based strategy to achieve vitamin D sufficiency. Unfortunately, even in advanced countries like USA and Canada, food fortification strategies with vitamin D have been only partially effective and have largely failed to attain vitamin D sufficiency. This article reviews the status of vitamin D nutrition in the Indian subcontinent and also the underlying causes for this epidemic. Implementation of population based educational and interventional strategies to combat this scourge require recognition of vitamin D deficiency as a public health problem by the governing bodies so that healthcare funds can be allocated appropriately.
Keywords: vitamin D; vitamin D deficiency; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; India; Indian subcontinent; healthy individuals; fortification strategies; supplementation; sun exposure; osteoporosis; fractures
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MDPI and ACS Style

G, R.; Gupta, A. Vitamin D Deficiency in India: Prevalence, Causalities and Interventions. Nutrients 2014, 6, 729-775.

AMA Style

G R, Gupta A. Vitamin D Deficiency in India: Prevalence, Causalities and Interventions. Nutrients. 2014; 6(2):729-775.

Chicago/Turabian Style

G, Ritu; Gupta, Ajay. 2014. "Vitamin D Deficiency in India: Prevalence, Causalities and Interventions." Nutrients 6, no. 2: 729-775.

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