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A High-Fat Diet Differentially Affects the Gut Metabolism and Blood Lipids of Rats Depending on the Type of Dietary Fat and Carbohydrate
Division of Food Science, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, 10 Tuwima street, Olsztyn 10-748, Poland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 September 2013; in revised form: 27 December 2013 / Accepted: 17 January 2014 / Published: 3 February 2014
Abstract: The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated) and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex). The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet) as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet) as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats.
Keywords: butyrate; corn starch; caecum; fructose; lard; soybean oil; cholesterol; triglycerides
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MDPI and ACS Style
Jurgoński, A.; Juśkiewicz, J.; Zduńczyk, Z. A High-Fat Diet Differentially Affects the Gut Metabolism and Blood Lipids of Rats Depending on the Type of Dietary Fat and Carbohydrate. Nutrients 2014, 6, 616-626.
Jurgoński A, Juśkiewicz J, Zduńczyk Z. A High-Fat Diet Differentially Affects the Gut Metabolism and Blood Lipids of Rats Depending on the Type of Dietary Fat and Carbohydrate. Nutrients. 2014; 6(2):616-626.
Jurgoński, Adam; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon. 2014. "A High-Fat Diet Differentially Affects the Gut Metabolism and Blood Lipids of Rats Depending on the Type of Dietary Fat and Carbohydrate." Nutrients 6, no. 2: 616-626.